Salon Fundamentals Chapter 10 - Hairstyling

the process of combing wet hair into the desired position is referred to as molding or:


what movement is created when two oblong shapings alternate?

S shape

the diameter of the tool or pincurl will determine the:

diameter of the curl

what is the area between partings within a shape on which a roller is placed?

curl base

the section of curl between the scalp and the first turn of the roller is called:


what part of a curl is positioned around the roller?


the combination of the size of the base and the position of the curl in relation to the base is called:

base control

the base control used within a hair style affects the amount of closeness in the hair style or the amount of lift, which is also called:


the base control that results in the most volume and strongest base strength is called:

on base

holding the hair 90 degrees from the center of the base and rolling it to sit on the bottom parting results in which of the following base controls?

half-off base

what is the term assigned to the base control when the tool being used sits below the bottom parting of the base?

off base

which base control is being used when the tool sits in the lower portion of the base, but not on or below the parting?


hair that is held at a 45 degree angle above the center of the base and rolled to sit in the upper portion of the base is described by which of the following terms?


using one or two cushion brushes and brushing all the way to the scalp to integrate the bases when finishing the hair is called:


what technique uses a comb to push back the shorter lengths of the hair toward the base to create a cushion and add volume to the hair style?

back combing

a comb with closely set teeth that creates a smooth surface as it is being used is a(n):

all purpose styling comb

a tool that is effective for smoothing wavy or curly textures and adding directional emphasis when air forming is called:

7- or 9-row air forming brush

which of the following hairstyling products adds shine and weight to the hair?


styling lotion supports volume and movement and:

is of liquid consistency

safety guidelines require the air intake of a blow dryer to be:

free from debris

use of a hand-held dryer with fingers, brushes, pressing combs, and/or a curling iron is called:

thermal styling

before brushing or combing hair that has been curled with an iron, ensure that the hair is:

completely cool

rain or humidity may cause thermally styled hair to react in which of the following ways?

hair returns to its original shape

which of the following is recommended to use for testing the temperature of a stove heated iron?

paper towel

the process of drying the hair and then styling it to create a new form is called air forming or:

blow drying

which thermal styling tool is used to air form wet hair while using brushes, combs, and fingers to create temporary direction and texture changes?

blow dryer

the blow dryer attachment that focuses the air flow to a small area is called the:


loss of hair elasticity or split ends may be caused by:

excessive blow drying

what direction should the blow dryer's air flow point?

down the hair strand from the scalp to the ends

to reduce the potential of hair and scalp damage from heat, hold the dryer at least:

3 to 5 inches from the hair

which of the following is true about the use of a smaller brush when hairstyling?

results in a curlier style

the technique of combining airflow that dries the hair with heat that is retained in the barrel of a hot brush or comb is referred to as:

air waving

if a client requests a temporary hair straightening service which of the following methods should be used?

hair pressing

which of the following time periods describes how long hair pressing results last?

until the next shampoo

the hair condition that is NOT able to be reconditioned is:


how can the temperature of a pressing comb be tested?

place it against a paper towel and look for a change of color

pressing combs are constructed using which of the following elements?

stainless steel or brass

which of the following will help determine the temperature used when pressing hair?


during hair pressing, fine hair requires which of the following actions?

apply less heat

a hard press refers to applying the pressing comb:

twice with more pressure and heat

who was the first person to introduce thermal irons?

marcel grateau

the curling iron clamp that holds the hair against the barrel is known as the groove or:


curling iron barrels, in order to retain heat, are usually made of which of the following materials?

stainless steel

to maintain a constant temperature during use, the electric curling iron contains a heating element controlled by a:


the temperature of the iron is determined by which one of the following factors?

client's hair condition and texture

manipulation of a thermal iron when styling involves all of the following procedures EXCEPT:

maintaining a closed clamp

all of the following are true about using a thermal iron on tinted, white, or very fine hair EXCEPT:

highest iron temperature is used

the technique used to create a curved-under or flipped up effect by adding curl texture at the ends only is referred to as a(n):

ends technique

which of the following steps would be used when performing spiral technique?

positioning the curling iron vertically at the base

the hair type that generally requires lower temperatures and less contact time when using an electric curling iron is which of the following?

chemically altered hair

hair breakage may result from which of the following actions?

pressing hair too often

thermal iron procedures are only performed on hair that has been:


the comb used to protect the scalp when performing curling iron techniques should be made of:

hard rubber or non-flammable material

why should having the ends of the hair protrude over the iron be avoided?

fishhook ends could be the result

double-processed hair requires all of the following EXCEPT:

high temperature curling iron

how is the majority of hair straightening accomplished during a pressing service?

pressing the spine of the comb against the hair

what is created by two complete oblong shapes that are joined and connected by a ridge?

a fingerwave

the hollow of the fingerwave may be described by which of the following terms?


overdirection of the ridge in fingerwaving may be caused by which of the following improper techniques?

pinching or pushing the ridge

a section of hair that forms a pincurl is commonly described in three parts as the base, stem, and:


the area of the strand at the scalp between partings within a shape is called:


where is the stem of the pincurl located that demonstrates the direction of the curl?

between the base and first turn

what determines the width and strength of a wave?

size of the circle

which of the following results would be achieved by using a pincurl with a closed center?

smaller and stronger wave, for a fluffy effect

a pincurl with an open circle has the ability to produce which of the following effects?

wider wave pattern with uniform curls

which type of pincurl would be selected to obtain closeness within a hairstyle?

flat pincurls

cascade pincurls are volume pincurls used to create which of the following results?

fullness and height

what is the name given to large stand-up pincurls that are able to achieve a similar effect to hair wound around a roller, but resulting in less volume?


what type of pincurl is used to achieve a blend or transition from areas of volume to areas of closeness?


the shape of the base within pincurls is used to:

avoid splits in the finished hair style

the base shapes of pincurls most often used are triangular, square, or rectangular and crescent which is also called the:


pincurls created from a curved shaping are called curvature or:

carved curls

which type of base control is used to produce lift or strong curl effect?

on base (no stem)

the base control used when an equal degree of predetermined direction and volume are required is:

half-off base (half stem)

which base control is identified as having the stem and circle positioned below the base and pick-up line?

off-base (full stem)

the off base pincurl produces which of the following results?

closeness and mobility

an oblong shaping followed by a row of pincurls is called a(n):

ridge curl

which of the following techniques produces a strong wave pattern?

skip wave

cone-shaped or conical rollers fit into a curvature shape and allow the creation of which of the following results?

a stronger curvature movement

all of the following techniques describe backbrushing EXCEPT: