Chapter 17: Exercise and Psychological Well-Being

What percentage of people will experience anxiety disorders? Depression?

25%, 20%

How more susceptible to depression are women than men?

Women <25 have 2x rate of men, women 25-64 have 6x rate of men

What is the general relationship between chronic exercise and mental health?

Regular exercise associated with reductions in anxiety and depression (does not have to be high intensity exercise - yoga, strength training)

What did Arent's study about exercise and anxiety reduction find?

Moderate intensity exercise produced greatest positive effects

What did Raglin and Morgan's study about exercise and anxiety reduction find?

-Post-exercise reductions in state anxiety return to pre exercise levels within 24 hours
-Those that just rested returned to pre-rest anxiety levels within 30 minutes

What exercise duration was most effective at reducing anxiety?

30+ minutes

How long does it take for state anxiety to return to pre-exercise levels?

4-24 hours

What did Desha's study about exercise and depression find?

Males not involved in sports had greater severity of depressive symptoms

How many times a week should a person exercise for the most effective depression reduction?

3-5x per week

What did Tennant's study about exercise and depression find?

Depression shown to be predictor of future heart attacks in cardiac patients


Several transient, fluctuating affective states that can be positive or negative

How are exercise and mood related?

Exercise related to positive changes in mood state

What did Carels study about exercise and mood find?

Positive morning mood associated with increased likelihood of exercising, as positive mood increases, so do exercise initiation rates and intensity

What are 6 guidelines for enhancing mood via exercise?

1. Rhythmic abdominal breathing
2. Avoid interpersonal competition
3. Closed predictable activity
4. Rhythmic and repetitive movements
5. 20-30min, mod intensity, 2-3x per week
6. Enjoyable

What are the proposed physiological explanations for why exercise enhances psychological wellbeing?

1. increases in cerebral blood flow
2. changes in brain neurotransmitters
3. increase in max O2 consumption
4. reductions in muscle tension

What are the proposed psychological explanations for why exercise enhances psychological wellbeing?

1. enhanced feeling of control
2. competency and self efficacy
3. positive social interactions
4. higher self-esteem

What did Ismail and Young's study about exercise and personality find?

Increases in fitness associated with increase in self confidence, self sufficiency, and feelings of control

Self Concept

Incorporates all aspects of what we think we are, central to our conscious lives

What does a hardy personality consist of?

1. sense of personal control over external events
2. sense of involvement, commitment, and purpose in daily life
3. flexibility to adapt to unexpected changes - challenges are opportunities for growth

What are the psychological benefits of exercise?

-Increases: self esteem, enjoyment, self confidence, mood
-Decreases: physical and psychological stress as well as anxiety and depression

Self Determination Theory