Chapter 1 AP Lang Notes


the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion


thoughtful, reflective activity leading to effective communication, including the rational exchange of opposing viewpoints


can be read, meaning not just consumed and omprehended, but investigated

be weary of manipulation

Why is it important for us to understand how rhetoric works?


the time and place the text was written or spoken


the circumstances, atmosphere, attitudes, and events surrounding the text


the goal the speaker wants to achieve

speaker, audience, subject

What relationship is important to rhetoric

rhetorical triangle (Aristotelian triangle)

illustrates how the speaker, audience, and subject are interrelated


the person or group who creates a text


Greek for "mask." The face or character that a speaker shows to his or her audience.


the listener, viewer, or reader of a text


the topic

Subject, Occasion, Audience, Purpose, Speaker

What does SOAPS stand for

explicit subject

subject matter that is fully and clearly express something, leaving nothing implied

implicit subject

subject matter that is not plainly or directly expressed

ethos, logo, pathos

What are the three main rhetorical appeals


demonstrate credibility and trustworthy


emphasize shared values between the speaker and the audience


a speakers reputation, title, or status


explaining credentials or background to their readers, or by emphasizing shared values


offering clear, rational ideas


greek for embodied thought


anticipate objections or opposing views

disproving counterargument

How do you defend your argument

concession, refutation

A combination of __________ and ____________ strengthen your own argument, it appeals to logos by demonstrating that you understand a view point other than your own


an appeal to emotions, values, desires, and hopes, or fears and prejudices

argumentation explains what someone believes; persuasion is an attempt to change someone's opinion. An argument does not necessarily try to change someones mind and usual factual evidence to make claims. Persuasion uses claims of personal opinion

What is argumentation and persuasion and the difference between them.

credibility-proving you are trusted and believable, respect for audience and value
authority- have experience in it or an expert or title, writers command of a topic
Credibility is connecting beliefs to principles that are well established and shared valu

Identify the two parts of an ethical appeal and explain how they are different?

forensic [happened in the past], ceremonial [current issues], deliberative [proposes future policies]

What are the three occasions for argument

passing reference or indirect mention
Ex: Meet the new Newton of the school

Define and give an example of allusion

a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.
Ex: feet, dont fail me now

Define and give an example of apostrophe

the act of yielding
ex: We have the right to freedom, but no one has the right to harm another person

Define and give an example of concession

overthrow by argument, evidence, or proof through evidence, logic and exposing discrepancies
ex: A defense attorney would refute the prosecutor's statement that his client is guilty by providing evidence that refute the claim.

Define and give an example of refutation

the act of positioning close together
ex: calm and chaos

Define and give an example of juxtaposition

the use of humor to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues.
Ex: irony, exaggeration, or ridicule

Define and give an example of satire

an attitude of a writer toward a subject or an audience
ex: "That's great!" is a cheerful tone

Define and give an example of tone

measure something against a standard of criteria

Define evaluation

denotation is the literal meaning of a word. For example, a rat is a small rodent. Connotation is the implied meaning of a word. For example a rat can be used o describe someone who is dirty and negative.

Define and explain the difference between denotation and connotation