Arguments that are flawed by their nature or structure
Scaring people from logical concerns to emotional fears.
Reducing options to two choices
Today's tiny misstep will lead to tomorrow's disaster (exaggeration)
Using tender emotions extensively to distract readers from facts
Urging people to follow the same path that everyone else is taking
Appeals to false authority
Supporting an idea by drawing on the authority of widely respected people, institution, and texts
Attempting to persuade by asserting or assuming that a particular position is the only one conceivably acceptable within a community
Suggesting that serious wrong-doings don't differ in kind from minor offenses
Ad Hominem Arguments
To the man" attacking directed at the character of a person rather than at the claims he or she makes
Inference drawn from insufficient evidence
assuming that because one event or actions follows another, the first necessarily causes
Begging the question
making a claim on the grounds that it cannot be accepted as true because those
grounds are in doubt. Also referred to as Circular Reasoning.
arguing that gives a lie an honest appearance; it's a half-truth
an argument where claims, reasons, or warrants fail to connect logically; one point doesn't follow from another.
The straw man
attacking an argument that isn't really there, one that's much weaker or more extreme than the one the opponent is actually making (setting up a straw man)
when comparisons are pushed too far or taken too seriously