CJ 101-1 Chapter 2

Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR)

Program run by the FBI and publishes crime in US annually

National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)

Survey of selected american households, of the bureau of justice statistics (BJS)

UCR

1930
18000 law enforcement agencies provide info
original, included crime index which permitted comparisons over time
murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, all combined in one

Crime index

summed the occurrences of seven major offenses--murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft--and expressed the result as a crime rate based on population...an eighth offense--arson

National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)

1988 initated
redesign of UCR, incidient-driven (not summary), gathers many details about each criminal incident, 22 general offenses, not fully adopted, significant redesign of UCR, attempting to enhance the quantity/quality or crime-data collection

Historical trend

There have been three major shifts in crime rates

First Shift

1940s Decrease due to men drafted for WWII

Second Shift

1960s and early 1990s, increase in crime rates becaues Postwar baby boomers reaching crime-prone age, growing professionalism, drug-related, crime peaked in early 1990s

Third Shift

1991 and 2009, decrease in crime rates because national effort to combat crime, sentencing reform, growth in the use of incarceration, "war on drugs," advances in forensic science technology

Fourth Shift

Starting now, PERF reports-rising violent crimes in america, "the reentry explosion," "the lengthening shadow of illegal imigration," "the sprawling parentless neighborhood of the internet," "surging youth population

UCR/NIBRS in transition

violent crimes (personal crimes, murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault)
property crimes (motor vehicle theft burglary, arson, larceny-theft) clearance rate (proportion of reported crimes that have been solved)

Murder

Unlawful killing of a human being
1st and 2nd degree (meditated, unmeditated(manslaughter)
smallest numerical category in part 1 offense
rates peak in warmest months
most common in southern states
firearms are the weapons most often used
offender is usual

spree murder

involve killings at tow or more locations with almost no time break between murders

mass murder

killing four or more victims at one location within one event

serial murder

happens over time, killing of several victims in three or more separate events

rape

the penetration no matter how slight of the vagina or anus with any body part of object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim, frequently committed by a person known to the victim

forcible rape

the carnal knowledge of a person forcibly and against their will" least reported of all violent crimes

sexual battery

sexual assault, wrongful physical contact with a person without their consent

date rape

forced sexual intercourse with a person, without his or her consent, that occurs within the context of a dating relationship

Robbery

unlawful taking or attempted taking of property that is the immediate possession of another by force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear
Individuals are the most common target of robbery
UCR/NIBRS scores a robbery as one robbery, even if mult

Assault

40-50% are domestic violence related
most frequent in summer
committed with blunt objects/objects at hand
victims usually know assaulter

simple assault

pushing/shoving

aggravated assault

weapon used or victim requires medical assistance

burglary

unlawful entry of structure to commit a felony or a theft
take place during daylight hours
usually do not know suspects
commit crimes when victims not present

larceny-theft

taking or attempted taking of property
motor vehicles, shoplifting, thefts from buildings, motor vehicle parts, bicycle thefts, thefts from coin-operated machines, purse snatching, pocket picking
most frequently reported

Identify theft

impostor obtains key info to obtain credit, merchandise, and services in the name of the victim

motor vehicle theft

theft of attempted theft of a motor vehicle (self propelled vehicle, no rails) excluded are trains, airplanes, bulldozers, farm/construction machinery, ships, boats, and spacecrafts (those are larceny), can turn violent (carjacking)

arson

intentional and unlawful burning of structures

national crime victimization survey (ncvs)

designed to estimate occurrence of all crimes, even not reported
conducted in 1972
built to uncover dark figure crime (crime that is not reported to the police and that remains unknown to officials)

UCR/NIBRS problems

not all people report when they are victimized
certain crimes are reported rarely, if at all
victim reports may not be entirely accurate
inaccuracies may enter the data as it is filtered through a number of levels

NCVS problems

respondents relate events which may or may not have been crimes
some victims are afraid to report crimes, even to non-police interviews
details about the crimes come directly from the victim with no attempt to validate the information against police recor

crime typology

classification of crimes along a particular dimension

crime against women

men more often the victims of violent crimes
women more likely to be injured in violent crimes
stalking (repeated harassing and threatening behavior which may be planned or carried out in secret)
cyber stalking (the use of internet, emails, and other elec

crimes against elderly

more likely to be victim of property crime
face offenders who are armed with guns
victimized by strangers
victimized near/in homes during daylight hours
report victimization to police
physically injured

hate crime

criminal offense committed against a person, property, or society that is motivated by the offenders bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity/national origin
consist of intimidation
vandalism, simple assault, and/or aggr

corporate crime

a violation of a criminal statue by a corporate entity or by its executives, employees or agents acting on behalf of and for the benefit of the corporation, corporations can be treated as separate rate legal entities(identification doctrine)

white-collar crime

violations of the criminal law committed by a person in the course of this or her occupation (Bernard "bernie" Madoff, "wall streets biggest fraud")

organized crime

the unlawful activities of the members of a highly organized, disciplined association engaged in supplying illegal goods or services

transnational organized crime

unlawful activity undertaken and supported by organized criminal groups operating across national boundaries

gun crime

pervade american culture, constitutional right to bear arms, 1million serious crimes involve the use of handguns
1993 brady handgun violence prevention act (waiting period/background check)
1996 domestic violence offender gun ban (convicted people cant ow

drug crime

estimated amount of illicit drug sales in the US is $65 billion
drug law violations continue to increase

computer crime

any crime perpetrated through the use of computer technology, piracy and forgery, dissemination of offensive materials, electronic money laundering, electronic vandalism and terrorism, spam, copy right infringement (MGM vs. Grokster) phishing

terroism

a violent act or an act dangerous to human life in violation of the criminal laws of the US or of any state, committed to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social objectives
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