CJUS 4650 Exam two review

That convicted criminal serves as a warning to would-be offenders contemplating the same act is the logic of:

general deterrence

Punishment in the form of imprisonment has been defended as a method of enhancing public safety by ___ predators.

incapacitating

Punishment justified on the grounds of ___ implies that punishment is a morally sound practice, regardless of any value it has in deterring or incapacitating criminals.

just deserts

Victims who want the court to order convicts to repay them for the costs arising from their injuries and losses are in favor of:

restitution

Utilitarian opponents argue punishment is:

All of these: ineffective; impractical; expensive

___ are the primary consumers of police services.

victims

Victims are more likely to endorse treatment or rehabilitation services if:

the offender is someone they know

When victims go beyond silence and inaction and conspire or collaborate in a cover-up to conceal a serious crime, they can be arrested and charged with:

misprision of a felony

The process in which police completely reject a person's claim about being the victim of a crime is known as:

unfounding

___ means detectives believe an offense really did take place but was not as serious as the complainant described it.

defounding

boost explanation

A theory holding that repeat victimizations occur because the offender gains important knowledge about the target during the initial crime.

flag explanation

A theory proposing that repeat victimizations occur because a target has permanent characteristics that attract criminals, such as being at a vulnerable location.

Precipitation

A situation in which the person who is targeted may be considered partly at fault for attracting the offender's interest or attention prior to an attack-

Facilitation

Careless or thoughtless behavior that makes a criminal's task's easier, Especially when perpetrating a theft of some kind-

Provocation:

An act that triggers, instigates, or incites someone who was not criminally inclined to commit an unlawful attack.;

typology

A classification system that attempts to sort each case into some category.

victim blaming

An approach that holds an injured party partly responsible for what happened.

victim defending

A perspective that denies that an injured party should be hold partly responsible for what happened; the belief that the blame falls solely on the offender, or the social system, or both.

just world outlook

A victim-blaming belief that bad things only happen to bad people; those who suffer must have done something to deserve their fate.

Examples of Techniques of Neutralization

Delinquents frequently disparage their intended targets as having negative traits. Ex.; "He was asking for it" or "They are a bunch of crooks themselves".; In extreme cases, youthful offenders believe the suffering they inflict is retaliatory justice that

offender blaming

An approach that rejects both system blaming as well as victim blaming, and holds a wrongdoer solely responsible for harming a victim.

system blaming

Neither the offender nor the victim is the real culprit.

chop shops

Illegal operations that dismantle stolen vehicles in order to sell their parts on the black market.

conscientiously resisting victims

Individuals who took extra precautions and bear no responsibility for their misfortunes.

conventionally cautious victims

People who did not take extra precautions and therefore can be considered slightly responsible for their misfortunes.

carelessly facilitating victims

Negligent people who make a thief's tasks easier.

misprision of a felony

A deliberate and illegal attempt to cover up the fact that a serious crime was committed; a concealment of the facts that goes beyond a mere failure to report an offense to the authorities.

unfounding

A process in which the police reject a person's claim about being harmed by a criminal as unbelievable or at least unprovable in court.

defounding

A process in which, after an investigation, the police downgrade the complainant's original accusations into less serious charges.

Purpose of Cold Case Squads

To take a fresh look at old unsolved serious crimes.

Who are Prosecutors

The chief law enforcement officials within their jurisdictions.; They represent the interests of the county, state, or federal government.

How can prosecutors serve victims

Keep victims informed of status of case.; Support victims with judges, bail, continuances, negotiated pleas, dropped charges, sentences and restitution.; Protect from harassment, threats, injuries and forms of intimidation and reprisals.; Resolve as quick

Victim-Witness Assistance Projects

To address witness and victim complaints.; Intended to restore victims' faith in CJ system.; Elicit greater cooperation from victims and witnesses.

What is cultural intimidation

Criminals, families and acquaintances of offenders, gangs, own family attempting to have victim drop charges - cultural issues.

plea negotiation

A longstanding practice in which the prosecution offers some concessions to the defense to convince the accused to admit guilt and settle the case without going to trial. AKA plea bargain

bedsheeting

A harsh practice of charging a defendant with every possible crime that may have been committed during a single incident.

overcharging

An abusive practice in which prosecutors lodge all possible charges against a defendant including ones that are not well supported by the available evidence.

courtroom work group

Insiders, especially prosecutors, defense attorneys, and judges, who share a common interest in resolving cases routinely and quickly.

going rate

A shared notion among members of the courtroom workgroup about the appropriate punishment for conviction of a specific offense at a particular time and place.

6th Amendment guarantees

Provides that defendants have the right to confront their accusers.; guarantees a defendant that he will be judged by a jury of his peers.

14th Amendment guarantees

Promises "equal protection under the law" for all citizens.

sentence disparity

Sharp differences in punishments imposed on people who commit the same crime.

allocution

The chance to speak out and advocate for oneself in court, now available to victims as well as defendants at sentencing hearings.

maximalist

An alarmist perspective that assumes the worst and calls for drastic measures to address a crisis.

minimalist

A skeptical point of view that assumes many statistics are inflated and that their interpretation by maximalists exaggerates the true scope and seriousness of the crime problem.

inveiglement

Enticement, persuasion to do wrong.

missing children

A catch-all phrase popularized by the media to refer to the huge number of youngsters whose whereabouts are unknown to their caretakers at any given moment.

What year was Battered child syndrome identified as a clinical condition

1874 - New York; Society for the prevention of cruelty to children

pseudomemories

Recollections of events that never happened.

The job of a Pediatric radiologist

Study x-rays of children's injuries.; sparked the rediscovery of physical abuse.

Purpose of the Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act

The purpose of the Federal PKPA was to assert the jurisdictional supremacy of a child's "home state" in matters pertaining to child custody and visitation.

Truth in Sentencing

refers to policies and legislation that aim to abolish or curb parole, so that convicts serve the period that they have been sentenced to.

General deterrence can be defined as

the impact of the threat of legal punishment on the public at large.

Specific deterrence can be seen as

the impact of the actual legal punishment on those who are apprehended.

What is parole

the release of a prisoner temporarily - for a special purpose - or permanently before the completion of a sentence, on the promise of good behavior.