Principles of Marketing, Chapter 14, Unit 9, Chapter 15, Unit 1


Gross Ratings Points

A television program with a higher GRP means

More people are turning in to the show and the reach is higher.

Cost per contact increases as

GRP increases for a particular medium

Because the typical ad is short-live and only a small portion may be perceived at one time

Advertisers repeat their ads so the consumers will remember the message, which is part of frequency, or the number of times an individual is exposed to a given message during a specific period.

Advertisers use average frequency

To measure the intensity of a specific medium's coverage.

Exposure frequency of five

Each of the televisions viewers who saw the ad, saw it five times.

Examples of Audience Selectivity

If marketers are trying to reach teenage girls, they might select Seventy Magazine, consumers over fifty might be reached by Modern Maturity.

Some media vehicles appeal to a wide cross section

Of the population, like general newspapers and network television.

Some media vehicles appeal to very specific groups

Like Brides, Popular Mechanics, Architectural Digest, Lucky, MTV, ESPN, and Christian radio stations

Examples of flexibility of a medium in the past

Because of printing timetables, production requirements and so on, some magazines required final ad copy several months before publications and couldn't adapt rapidly to changing market conditions.

Example of flexibility of a medium, radio and internet advertising

Provide a maxmum of this, because the advertiser can change an ad on the day it aired if necessary, or with the click of a few buttons.

Noise Level Example

Understanding a televised message can get a high level of this because of watching TV with others.

Noise Level can be created by

Competing ads, as well as a street lined with billboards, or a television program cluttered with competing ads.

Noise level is low

With direct mail, a private medium where typically no other advertising media or news stories compete for the reader's attention

Life Span

Messages can either quickly fade or persist as tangible copy to be carefully studied.

Life Span of a radio commercial

May last less than a minute, and listeners can't replay the commercial unless they've recorded the program.

To over come short lifespans, advertisers

May repeat radio ads often, which last less than a minute and can't be replayed.

Life Span of a magazine ad

Relatively long, with a person reading several articles, putting it down, and picking it up a week later to continue reading.

Magazines often have a high pass-along rate

One person will read the publication and then give it to someone else to read.

In evaluating reach vs. frequency

The media planner ultimately must select an approach that is most likely to result in the ad being understood and remembered when a purchase decision is being made.

Advertisers evaluate the qualitative factors involved in media selection that affect the likelihood a commercial message is being seen and hopefully absorbed.

Which include things like attention to the commercial/program, involvement, lack of distractions, how well the viewer likes the program and more.

While advertisers can advertise their product in

As many media as possible and repeat the ad as many times as they like, the ad still may not be effective if the audience is not paying attention.

After choosing the media for the advertising campaign

Advertisers must then schedule the ads to be shown.

Media Schedule

Designation of the media, the specific publications or programs and the insertion dates of advertising.

Continuous Media Schedule

A media scheduling strategy in which advertising is run steadily throught the advertising period.

Continuous Media Schedule is used

For products in the latter stages of the product life cycle which are advertised on a reminder basis.

Example of a Continuous Media Schedule

An ad in the newspaper every Sunday and a TV commercial on NBC every Wednesday at 7:30 PM over a three-month period.

Flighted Media Schedule

A media scheduling strategy in which ads are run heavily every other month or every two weeks.

Flighted Media Schedule is used

To achieve a greater impact with an increased frequency and reach at the time it's used, which may be every other month or every two weeks.

Movie Studios might use flighted media schedule

And schedule advertising on Wednesday and Thursday nights, when moviegoers are deciding which films to see that weekend.

Seasonal Media Schedule

A media scheduling strategy that runs advertising only during times of the year when the product is most likely to be used.

Products that use seasonal media schedule

May included cold tablets, and sunscreen lotion, which are used more during certain times of the year.

Continuous schedules for television advertisements

Are more effective than flighting schedules in driving sales.

It may be more important to get exposure

As close as possible to the time when someone is going to make a purchase when implementing a media scheduling strategy.

If the consumer shops on a weekly basis

The best time to reach that person is when he or she shops, therefore the advertiser should maintain a continuous schedule over as long a time as possible.

Recency Planning

Main premise of the theory is that advertising works by influencing the brand choice of people who are ready to buy.

Public Relations

The marketing function that evaluates public attitudes, identifies areas within the organization the public may be interested in, and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance.

Public Relations Campaigns strive to

Maintain a positive image of the corporation in the eyes of the public.

Before launching PR programs

Managers evaluate public attitudes and company actions. Then they create programs to capitalize on factors that enhance the firm's image and minimize the factors that could generate a negative image.


Public information about a company, product, service, or issue appearing in the mass media as a news item.

Organizations generally don't pay for publicity

And are not identified as the source of the information, but they can benefit tremendously from it.

The rapid growth of satellite radio industry is partly due to publicity

Their profile received a huge boos from the storm of publicity surrounding the decision by the country's most notorious and popular radio host to quit CBS radio and join censor-free Sirius satellite radio.

Although organizations don't pay directly for publicity it should not be viewed as free.

Preparing news releases, staging special events, and persuading media personnel to broadcast or print messages costs money.

Public Affairs

Building and maintaining national or local communitiy relations.

Crisis Management

REsponding to unfavorable publicity or a negative event.

Public relations professionals commonly use

Several tools including new-product publicity, product placement, consumer education, sponsorship, and Web sites.

Publicity can help advertisers explain what's different

About their product by prompting free news stories or positive word of mouth about it.

During the introductory period of the PLC, an especially innovative new product

Often needs more exposure through new-product publicity PR campaigns than conventional, paid advertising affords.

Public relations professionals write press releases

Or develop videos in an effort to generate news about their new product.

Public relations professionals jockey for exposure

Of their product or service at major events, on popular television and news shows, or in the hands of influential people.