roles of sodium

muscle contractions; transmission of nerve impulses

causes of hyponatremia


musculoskeletal symptoms of hyponatremia

muscle weakness, fatigue

GI symptoms of hyponatremia

N/V, cramping, diarrhea

CNS symptoms of hyponatremia


hyponatremia tx

-salt (PO)
-hypertonic solution (3%)
-free water restriction

causes of hypernatremia


musculoskeletal symptoms of hypernatremia

muscle twitching

GI symptoms of hypernatremia

thirst, abd cramping, nausea

CNS symptoms of hypernatremia


hypernatremia tx



too much AHD


too little ADH

roles of K+

maintains the resting membrane potential of cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle

causes of hypokalemia


musculoskeletal symptoms of hypokalemia


GI symptoms of hypokalemia

decreased bowel motility & constipation

cardiac symptoms of hypokalemia

dysrythmias, ECG changes (depressed T waves, ST depression)

foods high in k+

spinach, avocados, dried fruits, cantaloupe, potatoes, bananas

describe IV potassium

-burns, can cause tissue damage
-assess for phlebitis, change IV site if difficulty maintaining flow rate
-give SLOWLY (10 mEq/hr

describe PO potassium

safest, cheapest
-will upset stomach

causes of hyperkalemia


GI symptoms of hyperkalemia

abdominal cramps, diarrhea

cardiac symptoms of hyperkalemia

cardiac dysrhythmias- ventricular fibrillation, cardiac arrest

hyperkalemia tx

Kayexalate, spironolactone, dialysis

why is calcium unique?

-in charge of depolarization

causes of hypocalcemia

endocrine disorders, surgery, vit d deficiency

neuromusculoskeletal symptoms of hypocalcemia

-muscle cramping
-positive Chvostek's & Trousseau's
-hyperactive deep tendon reflexes

GI symptoms of hypocalcemia


causes of hypercalcemia


neuromuscular symptoms of hypercalcemia


renal symptoms of hypercalcemia