# Praxis 5511 Mathematics

A = side^2

area of a square

A=LW

area of a rectangle

A=BH

area of a parallelogram

A=.5bh

area of a triangle

A=.5(b1+b2)*h

area of a trapezoid

area of a circle

P=4(s)

perimeter of a square

P=2L+2w

perimeter of a rectangle

P=s1+s2+s3

Perimeter of a triangle

C=Pi(D)

circumference of a circle

V=S^3

volume of a cube

V=LWH

Volume of a rectangular solid

V=1/3 (base edge)^2height

volume of a square pyramid

V=1/3pir^2*h

volume of a cone

a^2+b^2=c^2

Pythagorean formula -- a and b are legs, c is hypotenuse

principleratetime

simple interest

rate*time

distance

integer

a whole number or its reciprocal

prime number

a number that is only evenly divisible by itself

composite number

a number that has more than two factors

prime factors

all prime numbers that comprise a composite number (factor tree! :D )

commutative property

the result of an arithmetic operation is not affected by reversing the order of the numbers; multiplication and addition satisfy this property. Example: 5x3=3x5 and 3+5=5+3

Associative property

when parentheses can be moved to group different numbers without changing the result. Addition and multiplication satisfy this. 2+(3+4)=(2+3)+4 and 2(ab)=(2a)b

distributive property

when a value is being multiplied by a sum or difference, multiply that value by each quantity within the parentheses, then take the sum or difference to yield an equivalent result. 5(a+b)=5a+5b

additive identity (zero for all integers)

the number that, when added to the number, does not change the number.

additive inverse (the reciprocal of the integer)

the number that, when added to the number, gives you the *** identity

multiplicative identity (1 for integers)

the value that, when multiplied by a number, does not change the number

multiplicative inverse (1/integer)

the number that, when multiplied by the number, gives you the multiplicative identity

vertex

point where two rays come together and form an angle

complementary angles

two angles that add up to 90 degrees

supplementary angles

sum of two angles that add up to 180 degrees

angles that have the same vertex, share a side, and do not overlap

transformation

a movement of a figure that affects each of the points of the figure in the same way

reflection

creates a mirror image of a figure over a given line

rotation

turns a figure over a given point

translation

moves a figure a given number of points in a certain direction or series of directions

dilation

increases or decreases the size of a figure according to a scale factor