AP Gov Required Court Cases

Schenck v United States (1919)

Defendant mailed fliers to draftees during WWI urging them to protest the craft peacefully. Was convicted of violating a federal law against encouraging the disobedience of military orders. Oliver Wendel Holmes wrote in the opinion that such speech was no

Tinker V. Des Moines Independent Community School District (1969)

The Court ruled that wearing black armbands in protest of the Vietnam War was symbolic speech, protected by the First Amendment. The question before the court was of about the 1st Amendment.

New York Times Co V. U.S (1971)

The Court reaffirmed its position of prior restraint, refusing to stop the publication of the Pentagon Papers. The question before the court was about publish work, it was tied into the freedom of speech.

Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)

The Court ruled that in state trials, those who cannot afford an attorney will have one provided by the state, overturning Betts v. Brady. The question before the court was about Sovereignty immunity.

Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)

The "separate but equal" doctrine as it applies to public education is unconstitutional; separate schools are inherently unequal. The court overturned Plessy v. Ferguson. The question before the court was if it was okay to have schools based on race, that

Roe V. Wade (1973)

Women have an absolute right to an abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy based on a constitutionally protected right of privacy, the state can impose restrictions in the second and third trimesters. The question before the court was if women got th

Marbury v. Madison (1803)

The court established its role as the arbiter of the constitutionality of federal laws, the principle is known as judicial review.

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

The courts ruled that the states cannot tax the federal government, i.e. the Bank of the United States; the phrase "the power to tax is the power to destroy"; federal government is supreme to the states (supremacy clause); confirmed the constitutionality

Engel v. Vitale (1962)

A state authorized students in its public schools to recite a short, voluntary prayer. The Court found that prayer could not be mandated by public schools as it violated establishment clause of 1st Amendment

Baker v. Carr (1961)

case that established the principle of one man, one vote. This decision created guidelines for apportionment, drawing up congressional districts to guarantee a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state. - The case also decided

U.S. v. Lopez (1995)

In a 5-4 decision, the Supreme Court affirmed the decision of the Court of Appeals. It held that while Congress had broad lawmaking authority under the Commerce Clause, the power was limited, and did not extend so far from "commerce" as to authorize the r

Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972)

case in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled (7-0) that compulsory school attendance law was unconstitutional when applied to the Amish, because it violated their rights under the First Amendment, which guaranteed the free exercise of religion.

McDonald v. Chicago (2010)

a landmark decision of the Supreme Court of the United States that determined whether the Second Amendment applies to the individual states. The Court held that the right of an individual to "keep and bear arms" protected by the Second Amendment is incorp

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010)

a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that the First Amendment prohibited the government from restricting independent political expenditures by corporations and unions.
Keyword: Independent Political Expenditures

Shaw v. Reno (1993)

a landmark case in the area of redistricting and racial gerrymandering. The court ruled in a 5-4 decision that redistricting based on race must be held to a standard of strict scrutiny under the equal protection clause. On the other hand, bodies doing red