ESL Supplemental 154 Prep Material

Standard I

The ESL teacher understands fundamental language concepts and knows the structure and conventions of the English language.

Standard II

The ESL teacher has knowledge of the foundations of ESL education and factors that contribute to an effective multicultural and multilingual learning environment.

Standard III

The ESL teacher understands the processes of first- and second-language acquisition and uses this knowledge to promote students' language development in English.

Standard IV

The ESL teacher understands ESL teaching methods and uses this knowledge to plan and implement effective, developmentally appropriate ESL instruction.

Standard V

The ESL teacher has knowledge of the factors that affect ESL students' learning of academic content, language, and culture.

Standard VI

The ESL teacher understands formal and informal assessment procedures and instruments (language proficiency and academic achievement) used in ESL programs and uses assessment results to plan and adapt instruction.

Standard VII

The ESL teacher knows how to serve as an advocate for ESL students and facilitate family and community involvement in their education.

Domain I

Language Concepts and Language Acquisition. It is 25% of the exam and covers Standards I and III, and Competency 001-002.

Domain II

ESL Instruction and Assessment. It is 45% of the exam and covers Standards I and III-VI, and Competency 003-007.

Domain III

Foundations of ESL Education, Cultural Awareness and Family and Community Involvement. It is 30% of the exam and covers Standards II and VII, and Competency 008-010.

Competency 001

The ESL teacher understands fundamental language concepts and knows the structure and conventions of the English language.

Competency 002

The ESL teacher understands the processes of first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) acquisition and the interrelatedness of L1 and L2 development.

Competency 003

The ESL teacher understands ESL teaching methods and uses this knowledge to plan and implement effective, developmentally appropriate instruction.

Competency 004

The ESL teacher understands how to promote students' communicative language development in English.

Competency 005

The ESL teacher understands how to promote students' literacy development in English.

Competency 006

The ESL teacher understands how to promote students' content-area learning, academic-language development and achievement across the curriculum.

Competency 007

The ESL teacher understands formal and informal assessment procedures and instruments used in ESL programs and uses assessment results to plan and adapt instruction.

Competency 008

The ESL teacher understands the foundations of ESL education and types of ESL programs.

Competency 009

The ESL teacher understands factors that affect ESL students' learning and implements strategies for creating an effective multicultural and multilingual learning environment.

Competency 010

The ESL teacher knows how to serve as an advocate for ESL students and facilitate family and community involvement in their education.

Language Systems

Phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon, semantics, discourse, pragmatics.

ELPS Domains of Language

Listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
- Listening and reading are the basis for speaking and writing.
- Speaking and writing will enhance listening and reading.

Structure of English Language

Word formation, grammar, vocabulary and syntax

Cognitive Processes

Memorization, categorization, generalization, metacognition. They are involved in synthesizing and internalizing language rules for second-language acquisition.

Common Difficulties for ELLs

Idiomatic expressions; L1 interference in syntax, phonology and morphology

Proficiency Levels

Beginning, Intermediate, Advanced, and Advanced-High

Individual Differences

Developmental characteristics, cultural and language background, academic strengths, and learning styles can impact English-language learners in grade 3 or higher who are at the beginning or intermediate level of English-language proficiency in listening


Is a type of alphabetic language.

Phonological Knowledge and Skills

Phonemic awareness skills, knowledge of English letter-sound associations, and knowledge of common English phonograms help ESL students' development.

Sight-Word Vocabularies

Phonetically irregular words and high-frequency words help ESL students' development.

Factors that affect ESL students' reading comprehension

Vocabulary, text structures, and cultural references

Personal factors that affect ESL students' English literacy development

Interrupted schooling, literacy status in the primary language, prior literacy experiences

Linguistically accommodated

Communicated, sequenced and scaffolded

Content-Based Instruction (CBI)

Instruction that is geared towards the students' levels of English language proficiency; engaging students in critical thinking; and developing students' cognitive-academic language proficiency across content areas.

Learning Strategies

Preteaching key vocabulary; helping students apply familiar concepts from their cultural backgrounds and prior experiences to new learning; using metacognition, using hands-on and other experiential learning strategies; using realia, media and other visua

Content-area Learning Factors

Prior learning experiences, familiarity with specialized language and vocabulary, familiarity with the structure and uses of textbooks and other print resources

ESL Test Design

Diagnosis, program evaluation, and proficiency play a role in a type of design.

Formal and Informal Assessments

Characteristics, uses, and limitations play a role in two types of assessments.

Foundations of ESL Education

Historical, theoretical and policy help plan, implement and advocate for effective ESL programs.

ESL Programs

Self-contained, pull-out, newcomer centers, dual language, immersion

Cultural and Linguistic Diversity

Two types of diversity that affect students' learning of academic content, language, and culture (age, developmental characteristics, academic strengths and needs, preferred learning styles, personality, sociocultural factors, home environment, attitude,

Multicultural and Multilingual

A learning environment that addresses the affective, linguistic and cognitive needs of ESL students and facilitates students' learning and language acquisition.

Cultural Bias

Stereotyping, prejudice, ethnocentrism

Educational and Social Equity

Advocating for the equity for ESL students (e.g., participating in LPAC and Admission, Review and Dismissal [ARD] meetings, serving on Site-Based Decision Making [SBDM] committees, serving as a resource for teachers).


Members who can positively affect student learning in the ESL program


It is important to communicate and collaborate with these people, as it impacts the ESL students/

First-Language (L1)

An ELL's native language. This term may be used to refer to persons who are speaking in their native language. This language is used in formal situations and settings, in academics, and occurs around educators and adults.

Second-Language (L2)

An ELL's non-native language, often used in the context of "L2 student" to designate students who are non-native speakers of a language. This language is used in social situations and settings, in meaningful interaction and occurs when interacting with pe

English Language Learner (ELL)

An individual who is in the process of actively acquiring English, and whose primary language is one other than English.

Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)

A research-based, explicit model of sheltered instruction, in which the language and context for academic subject matter are adapted for ELLs.
- Using explicit instruction in voluntary.
- Providing clarification in the first language.
- Intertwining conte

SIOP Model of Sheltered Instruction

Cooperative Learning, Learning Strategies, Multiple Intelligences, Standards, Writers Workshop, Flexible Grouping, Reading First, and Differentiated Instruction.

English Language Proficiency (ELP) Standards

Principles or criteria for identifying and describing the English-language oral, reading, and writing skills necessary for ELLs to communicate effectively and participate fully in school.

English Language Proficiency (ELP) Assessment

A test that measures the English language (oral, reading, and writing) skills of students with limited English proficiency. Such a test is required by Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (reauthorized as the No Child Left Behind Act of

English as a Second Language (ESL)

A term used to designate students whose first language is not English. It refers to an educational approach designed to support ELLs.

Limited English Proficient (LEP)

A term used by the U.S. Department of Education to refer to ELLs who are enrolled or getting ready to enroll in elementary or secondary school and who have an insufficient level of English to meet a state's English expertise requirements.

English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL)

It applies to both ESL and EFL contexts. When students are learning English in a native English-speaking country (ESL), but are not necessarily learning a second language. It could, in fact, be a student's third or even fourth language.

Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)

Language skills needed for social situations (playground, lunchroom, on the school bus, parties, playing sports, and talking on the phone). These language skills usually develop within six months to two years.

Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)

Use of language in decontextualized academic situations. It refers to formal academic learning. This includes listening, speaking, reading, and writing about subject area content material. This usually takes from five to seven years.

Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC)

The significant role the committee plays in ensuring equitable academic opportunities for English learners.

Texas Observation Protocol (TOP)

Holistic assessment used to measure adequate yearly progress of ESL students in listening, speaking, reading, and in grades K-1 and listening, speaking, and writing in grades 2-12 through the PLD's (Proficiency Level Descriptors) assessment tool.

Title III

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) is a part of the legislation enacted to ensure that limited English proficient (LEP) students, including immigrant children and youth, develop English proficiency and meet the same academic content and achieveme

English as a Foreign Language (EFL)

Learning English in a non-English-speaking country. For example, students in China who are learning English are considered EFL students because English is not the official language of the country. But if those same students were in the U.S. learning Engli

Total Physical Response

Language learning method based on the coordination of speech and action.

Essential Practices for ELPS

- Integrate the Skills
- Use Content-Based Instruction
- Use Task-Based Instruction

Language Register

The manner of speaking chosen according to the communicative function or the audience. The degree of formality with which one speaks. (social vs. academic)
- People speak in an informal register in social and family situations.
- People speak in a formal


Words in 2 or more languages related through the same origin.

Partial Cognate

The word in other languages has the same origin but the spelling will differ. The meaning will be the same but the pronunciation due to the language structure will be different. Example: english- fragrance spanish- frangancia english- apple german apfel.

Functions of Languages

Instrumental- satisfy needs/ Personal- tell about one's self/ Interactional-communicate, relate to others/ Regulatory- control behavior of others/ Heuristic- question, infer/ Imaginative- dream, create/ informative- inform, educate.

Deep Culture

Below the surface are the more meaningful and powerful aspects of culture:
Beliefs ? what we see as truth
Norms ? unwritten rules for behavior
Values ? what we hold most important.


A classroom with only ELL students or an ESL resource class where the teacher provides classroom instruction in all subject matter without employing pullout ESL instruction. Typically has students with a variety of first languages.
Benefits: Doesn't have

Dual Language

Taught in both English and native language.
Usually begins in kindergarten or 1st-grade, extending for at least 5 years. It may continue into middle school and high school.
Benefits: Promote bilingualism, biliteracy, enhanced awareness of linguistic and c

Sheltered English Instruction

Content adapted to level of proficiency to facilitate comprehension.
Benefits: A teaching strategy that uses language and context to make academic subject matter more comprehensible for ELLs.


Instruction exclusively in English and no distractions of a mainstream classroom environment. Content area instruction is learned in English. L2 is the medium for sheltered instruction

Newcomer Centers

Newly arrived in the U.S. and are given specific interventions to help their transition. Usually at middle and high school level, and are aimed at those with limited or interrupted schooling in their home countries.
Benefits: Include the acquisition of be


ESL teachers pull students out of the general education classroom to work one-on-one or in a small group setting. It can also be referred to as Self-Standing.
Benefits: More individualized support, a low-risk environment, the ability for teachers to close


The ESL teacher goes into the regular, mainstream classroom to work with the English language learner (ELL).
Benefit: Students stay in the mainstream classroom.


A sink-or-swim strategy where there is no assistance of any kind to ELLs. There is no use of students' first language or support. L2 is the medium of instruction no sheltering

Late-Exit Bilingual Programs

A balanced combination of academic instruction in students' first language and English. ELLs first language serves as the foundation for the development of English language skills and academic knowledge in both languages.
The program lasts six to seven ye

Early-Exit Bilingual Programs

Use ELLs' first language as a foundation for building language competency. Instruction is in both languages to process academically and prepare to transfer rapidly to a mainstream classroom with English native speakers.
The program can last from one to fo

TELPAS Composite Rating

Reading 75%
Listening 5%
Speaking 5%
Writing 15%

Listening & Speaking Domain Levels

Beginning ? Little or no English ability.
Intermediate ? Limited ability, simple language structures, high-frequency vocabulary, routine contexts.
Advanced ? Grade appropriate, with second language acquisition support.
Advanced High ? Grade appropriate, w

Advanced/Advanced High

- Visuals for academic vocabulary and concepts
- Grade-level text
- Complex sentence stems
- Preteaching low-frequency academic vocabulary
- Peer interaction
- Verbal scaffolding as needed


- Visuals for academic vocabulary and concepts
- Adapted grade-level text
- Sentence stems
- Preteaching academic vocabulary
- Peer interaction
- Verbal scaffolding


- Visuals for classroom vocabulary and academic concepts
- Native language and adapted grade-level text
- Short, simple sentence stems
- Preteaching social and academic vocabulary
- Peer interaction (same-language peer as needed)
- Extensive verbal scaffo

Bloom's and Higher Order Thinking Skills

Bloom's taxonomy is a must know. If in doubt, select a choice that requires a learner to exercise HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS (HOTS), a choice that requires the learner to synthesize, analyze, or evaluate. Avoid any answer choices that involve memorizati

Sight-word vocabularies

Phonetically irregular words, high-frequency words

Phonological knowledge and skills

Phonemic awareness skills, knowledge of English letter-sound associations, knowledge of common English phonograms

Cognitive processes

Memorization, categorization, generalization, metacognition for synthesizing and internalizing language rules for second-language (L2) acquisition

Stages of Development in Communication Skills

Stage 1: One-Way Communication
Stage 2: Partial Two-Way
Stage 3: Full Two-Way Communication

Stage 1

One-Way Communication
(Development in Communication Skill)

Stage 2

Partial Two-Way
(Development in Communication Skill)

Stage 3

Full Two-Way Communication
(Development in Communication Skill)

Stages of Acculturation

Euphoria; Culture Shock/Alienation; Anomie/ Tentative Recovery; Assimilation or Adaption


Overwhelming excitement over the newness of the surroundings.
Hint: A Stage of Acculturation

Culture Shock/Alienation

It starts when the individual feels the increasing intrusion of cultural differences into their own image of self and security. Associated feelings include estrangement, anger, hostility, indecision, frustration, unhappiness, sadness, and loneliness.

Anomie/ Tentative Recovery

Gradual and tentative and vacillating recovery. General progress is made slowly but surely as individuals begin to accept the difference in thinking and feeling that surround them, slowly becoming more empathic with other persons in the second culture.

Assimilation or Adaption

Near or full recovery; acceptance of the new culture and self-confidence in the new person that has developed in this culture.
Hint: A Stage of Acculturation

Common ESL Difficulties

Idiomatic expressions
L1 interference in syntax

Structure of English Language

Word formation

Basic Concepts of Language Systems

Phonology; Morphology; Syntax; Lexicon; Semantics; Discourse; Pragmatics; Morpheme; Homographs; Homonyms; and Homophone.


Refers to sounds


Refers to word structure


Refers to the structure of sentences


Vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge


Refers to literal meaning (different meanings for a word)


Written or spoken communication


Refers to intended meaning (how people use the language & social use)


Smallest unit/parts of a word that has meaning


Words spelled alike but have different pronunciations & meanings


Words sound alike but have different meanings


Words sound alike and have different meanings and spellings

Relative Pronouns

Connect a clause or phrase to a noun or pronoun. The clause modifies or describes the noun. (who, whom, whose, which, that)

Possessive Pronouns

It shows ownership (my, our, your, his, her, its, their)

Reflexive Pronouns

Words ending in -self or -selves and are used when the subject and the object of a sentence are the same.

Indefinite Pronouns

Does not refer to any specific person, thing, amount, being, object, or place (all, another, each, anything, anybody/anyone, any, everybody/everyone, everything, few, many, nobody, none, one, several, some, somebody/someone).

Individual Differences

Developmental characteristics
Cultural and language background
Academic strengths
Learning styles

Facilitating ESL Applications of Various Learning Strategies

- Pre Teaching key vocabulary
- Helping to apply familiar concepts from cultural backgrounds and prior experiences to new learning
- Using metacognition
- Using hands-on and other experiential learning strategies
- Using realia, media and other visual sup

Used to Select, Adapt, and Develop Assessments for Different ESL Programs

Program Evaluation

Cultural relativism

When people view themselves as belonging to another culture.

Culturally responsive instruction

Acknowledging students' diverse cultural backgrounds and languages.

Advocate Educational and Social Equity for ESL Students

Participating in LPAC
Admission, Review and Dismissal [ARD] meetings
Serving on Site-Based Decision Making [SBDM] committees
Serving as a resource for teachers

Casta´┐Żeda v. Pickard (1981)

Established the requirement that the programs must be evaluated to determine their effectiveness in achieving their instructional goals.

Plyler v. Doe (1982)

Prohibits public schools and school personnel from adopting policies or taking actions that would deny students access to education based on their immigration status.

Implications of Lau v. Nichols

The U.S. Supreme Court guaranteed children an opportunity for a meaningful education regardless of their language background. It mandates that schools take effective measures to overcome the educational challenges faced by non-English speakers.

Bilingual Education Act of 1968

Created under Title VII, the act was making an effort to secure more resources, trained personnel and special programs to meet the needs of the minority students.

Formal and Informal Assessment Procedures and Instruments

Anecdotal Log; Formal Assessment; Performance-Based Assessment; and Portfolio

Anecdotal Log

Includes notes about students recorded throughout the day.

Formal Assessment

This assessment requires a specific time for administration and sets expectations for what is being assessed.

Performance-Based Assessment

This assessment requires students to perform a specific task.


A collection of a variety of work that has been completed over a period of time.

Graphic Organizers for Expository Texts

Venn Diagram; Timeline; Thinking Map; and
Word Web. These graphic organizers help with a type of text.

Venn Diagram

Helps show similarities and differences between 2 topics.


Helps give a sequence of events in a text.

Thinking Map

Helps show the connection between topics and details.

Word Web

Helps understand the vocabulary used in a reading selection.

Word Formation

Word formation is the production of new words.


Makes a word out of two or more morphemes. The result is a compound word. Examples: rainbow, football, mailbox, something, butterfly


Joining parts of two or more words to make a new word. The meaning is usually a combination of the words that were blended together. Examples: brunch, motel, smog, skort, carjacking


The creation of a new word from another word, typically by a base word with an affix. Examples: helpful, quickly, speaker, national, happiness


A word made by pronouncing the initials of a phrase as its own word. Examples: PIN- personal identification number & AWOL- absent without leave


An expression that becomes part of a language by translating it word-by-word from another language. Examples: "point of view" in English translates from "point de vue" in French; "beer garden" in English translates from "biergarten" in German


A newly used word or phrase that is not yet formally accepted into a language. Neologisms often reflect current cultural trends. Examples: staycation, chillax, crowdsourcing


The creation of a new word by removing an affix. Examples: edit from original word editor, beg from original word beggar, donate from original word donation