Plant Structure


Why does pinching off the top of a plant make it bushier?

Removing the apical meristem stimulates growth in the axillary buds, thus making the plant bushier.

Water-conducting cells of plants are called _____

Tracheids and vessel elements

A region of dividing cells in a plant is called a _____.


Which example below is the site of primary growth that results in the plant increasing in height?

apical meristems

Artichoke hearts are tender and have a strong taste. The leaves have a strong taste, too, but most of an artichoke leaf is fibrous and too difficult to chew. The leaves must contain lots of __________.

sclerenchyma cells

Evolutionary adaptations of stems include ______

Stolons and tubers

leaves consist of

blade and petiole

The layer that covers the apical meristem of a root is called the ______

root cap

_____ are the three basic plant organs

Roots, stems, leaves

Evolutionary adaptations of roots include all of the following root structures except __________.


Leaves occur at intervals along the plant stem. The region where a leaf is attached to the stem is the _____.


Sugar-conducting cells of the phloem

alive at functional maturity

In woody plants, the vascular cambium initial is ______

Mitotic ally active and divides to form an inner layer of secondary xylem and an outer layer of secondary phloem

The main difference between a primary root and a lateral root is that ________

Lateral roots enhance the ability of the root system to anchor the plant and acquire resources from the soul

The three types of tissue systems that are found in all plant organs are _____

Dermal, ground, vascular

In most leaves, chloroplast-containing cells are most closely compacted in the _____


Which of the following correctly describes a feature unique to monocot stems?

vascular bundles are scattered throughout the stem

Evolutionary adaptations of leaves include all of the following except _____


Most of the photosynthesis in plants takes place in specialized ______ cells called the _____

parenchyma ... mesophyll

What accounts for about 90% of a plant cells expansion?

the uptake of water that is stored in a large central vacuole.
Water uptake accounts for 90% of expansion. Most of this water is packaged in the large central vacuole formed by the coalescence of many smaller vacuoles.

Root tips are pushed farther into the soil mainly by __________.

elongation of cells.
Roots elongate primarily because of elongation of cells in the zone of elongation.

The -____ of a root or a stem is called the _____

Vascular tissue, stele

Phase changes are ________

Morphological changed that arise from transitions in shoot apical meristem activiry

If you pound a nail into a tree 1 meter off the ground and come back to find it in 20 years, it will be

1 meter off the ground and more deeply embedded in the tree

Annual rings

Vascular cambium

The difference between primary growth and secondary growth is that ______

Lengthens root and increases diameter. Short.