Chapter 13 Integrative Pysiology

All neural reflexes start with ______.

a stimulus

Which type of reflex always involves skeletal muscles?

Somatic reflex

Autonomic reflexs

Receptor, sensory neuron, CNS integrating center, preganglionic autonomic neuron, postganglionic autonomic neurons, Target cells

Which organ responds to muscle stretch?

Muscle spindle

_____ are stretch receptors inside skeletal muscles.

Muscle spindle

In a stretch reflex, what causes the response to stop?

After the response, the stretch receptors are no longer stretched.

Postural reflexes normally do NOT require input from ____ sensory neurons.

auditory

What is the outcome of a Golgi tendon reflex?

The agonist musucle relaxes

What is the collection of pathways controlling a single joint called?

myotatic unit

What is the stimulus that initiates a flexion reflex?

Pain

The three types of proprioceptors include spindles, Gogli tendon organs, and ______.

Joint receptors

Sensory input used for postural control include which of the following?

Visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive

Central pattern generation (CPGs) are groups of interneurons that control which of the following?

Rhythmic movements

The effector in a reflex is the

muscle or gland

A polysnaptic reflex has at least _____ in the reflex pathway.

Two synapse and three neurons

Identify the FALSE statement.

All reflexes require input from the brain

Intergrated in the brain

cranial

Several neurons involved in a pathways: can be compelx

polysynaptic

Reflexes that one is born with; genetically determined

innate

Integrated in the spinal cord, often modulated by the brain

spinal

An example would be slowing or speeding the heart and other internal organs that are not consciously controlled

autonomic

Our experiences tell us how to behave; bracing yourself in anticipation would be an example

acquired

In a _____ reflex, a sensory neuron synapse directly on a motor neuron.

Monosynaptic

A _____ reflex has/have a lest one interneuron placed between the sensory and motor neuron.

Polysynaptic

Most reflexes are regulated by ______ feedback.

Negative

Which reflex is NOT controlled by the brain stem?

urination

Which is NOT true regarding autonomic reflexes?

Autonomic reflexes are all monosynaptic, with their synapse in the central nervous system.

Autonomic reflexes are also called _____ reflexes.

Visceral

The sensory fibers of the muscle spindle organs synapse onto

Alpha motor neurons

The reflex that prevens a muscle from exerting too muh tension is the

Tendon reflex

The flexion reflex

moves a limb away from a painful stimulus

The reflex that complements a withdrawl reflex by making compensatroy adjustments on the opposite side of the body receiving the stimulus is the

crossed extensor reflex

It is the middle of winter and you walk over an icy patch and lose your balance. As you begin to fall, you react by extending your arms to catch yourself. In this instance, what type of reflex is occurring?

crossed extensor reflex

Spinal interneurons prevent muscle antagonists from interfering with an intended movement by

the process of reciprocal inhibition

The "normal" contractile fibers of the muscle are also called the

extrafusal fibers

Most reflex movements are integrated by

the spinal cord

Motor neurons are sometimes inhibited by

Golgi tendon organs

Involves skeletal muscles

somatic

Maintain muscle tone at rest through tonic activity

muscle spindles

Have afferent neurons that bring information to the CNS

both (muscle spindles and golgi tendon organs)