Chapter 4 Study Guide

workers hauled 20,000 tons of marble and took 15 years to build this

Parthenon

age of great creativity and learning in Athens

Age of Pericles

focused on government and education

Athens

King of Persia

Cyrus the Great

could not leave home without a male relative

upper-class Athenian women

ordinary citizens in the army

Hoplites

Promised to pass on their fatherland in a better condition

The Athenian soldiers

The History of the Persian Wars was written by

Herodotus

The Mycenaeans came to Greece from

Central Asia

In direct democracy who decides government matters

all people

When the Spartans needed room for expansion, they

conquered neighboring land

The Minoans made their living as

traders

Xerxes was king of

Persia

The Greeks won the Battle of Salamis because

their ship could move around quicker

Mycenaeans could pay their taxes in

wheat, livestock, or honey

The Delian League began as an alliance to

Protect the Greeks from Persians

Focused on military service

Spartans

made Athens more democratic

Pericles

brought iron weapons to the Greeks

Dorians

thinkers who ponder questions about life

Philosophers

Age at which Spartan men entered the regular army

20

enforced laws and collected taxes in Spartan

Ephors

What did the Athenian soldiers promise to do in their oath

Protect the Constitution

Who became popular by giving land to landless farmers?

Peisistratus

Why did Xerxes want to conquer Greece?

Wealth, glory, revenge

What did the Mycenaeans learn from the Minoans?

Navigation by sun and stars

Spartan men could return to their homes when

They were 60

The time around 600 B.C. is called the Dark Age because

People forgot how to read and write

Early Greeks lived by

fishing, trade, and herding goats and sheep

The Athenian assembly appointed ten generals, who

carried out the assembly's laws

Who could be citizens in Greek city-states?

Free, native-born, land-owning men

The Greek alphabet was based on whose alphabet

Phoenicians