What anicent Chinese documents listed the medicinal value of hundreds of herbs?
Pen T-Sao documents
What is the Papyrus Ebers?
An ancient Egyptian collection of 800 prescriptions that mentions 700 medications
Which publication attritubed to Ancient Rome was used by medical professionals as late as the 16th century?
De Materia Medica
What was the name of the first official pharmacopoeia followed by European apothecaries in the 15th century?
What was the Master, Wardens, and Society of the Art and Mystery of the Apothecaries of the City of London?
The first organization of pharmacists, established in 1617
What was the major contribution of John Morgan to the field of pharmacy?
He was the first hospital pharmacist to support the use of written prescriptions.
What was the first book of medication standards accepted nationally across the US?
The United States Pharmacopoeia (USP)
The four eras of pharmacy in the 20th century
1. Traditional era
2. Scientific era
3. Clinical era
4. Pharmaceutical care era
How is the role of the pharmacy technician expanding in some states?
Some states are allowing technicians to perform immunizations.
What is the purpose of medication reconciliation?
Avoiding medication errors that include omissions, duplications, dosing errors, or medication interactions
The tasks performed by the pharmacy technician allow the pharmacist to spend more time providing which professional and clinical services
The two general types of activities performed by a pharmacy technician
Preparing prescriptions and maintaining the pharmacy department
Three tasks a pharmacy technician can perform when a patient arrives at a community pharmacy counter
1. Accept new prescriptions from patients
2. Obtain patient health information
3. Enter data in the computer that includes patient, prescriber, and prescription information
Two tasks a pharmacy technician can perform over the phone
1. Receive refill requests from patients
2. Receive refill authorizations from nurses or physcians
Three pharmacy technician tasks associated with filling prescriptions
1. Retrieve medications from shelves
2. Print prescriptions labels and accompanying patient medication guides
3. Prepare medications for a pharmacist to check
Four pharmacy technician activities associated with maintaining the pharmacy department
1. Maintain medication and equipment inventory
2. Stock pharmacy supplies
3. Keep accurate records for the pharmacy department
4. Help patients locate over-the-counter (OTC) medications available without a prescription
Educational requirements for pharmacists
1. Graduation with a PharmD degree (two years of prepharmacy classes and four years of study at an accredited college)
2. Completion of an internship
3. Passing a pharmacy law exam administered by a state board of pharmacy
Education paths for the pharmacy technician
1. Formalized pharmacy technician training programs (certificates, diplomas, associate of applied science degrees)
2. On the job training (formal employer-based programs or job shadowing)
3. High school career and technical educational programs
Examples of pharmacy technician duties that might be within scope of practice depending on state laws
1. Receiving verbal prescription orders from prescribers
2. Transferring prescriptions from one pharmacy to another
3. Verifying prescription medications that do not require determinations based on clinical judgment
4. Immunizing patients
What is a possible consequence of violating patient confidentiality?
Exposing the pharmacy to a lawsuit
Two major areas of a pharmacy department
The medication storage area
The dispensing work area
Two methods of arranging storage bays
1. Alphabetically by medication name
2. By dosage form
What is the purpose of a speed shelf?
Providing quick access to medications that are prescribed most often
Three sections of the pharmacy counter
3. Counseling area
What is the purpose of the counseling area?
To provide an area out the way of customer traffic to protect patient privacy while being counseled by the pharmacist
Three functional components of the data entry area
1. The to-be-entered section
2. The to-be-filled section
3. The staging section
How are prescriptions organized in the to-be-filled section of the data entry area?
By pick-up times
Which items are placed in the staging section of the data entry area?
1. The label
2. The original prescription order
3. Stock bottles of medication to dispense
Which items are found in the dispensing area?
1. Counting equipment, counting trays, and automatic pill counters
2. Distilled water dispenser
3. Prescription containers
4. Auxilliary labels
Which types of products are made in the compounding area?
Nonsterile products such as creams, ointments, lotions, and gels
How are professional standards different from statutes and regulations?
Professional standards are set forth by the profession but, unlike statutes and regulations, are not enforceable by law
What is the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938?
Law that was enacted to ensure that all medications are pure and safe and that resulted in the creation of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
What is The Durham-Humphrey Admendment of 1951?
A piece of legislation that distinguished prescription medications from over-the-counter (OTC) medications by requiring adequate directions for use unless the medication contains the federal legend statement
Which law requires that prescribers are assigned a DEA number?
Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970
What was the result of the Drug Listing Act of 1972?
All medications are assigned a National Drug Code (NDC) number, a 10-digit identification number.
What is the primary role of a state board of pharmacy?
To regulate the operation of pharmacy departments, the practice of pharmacy by pharmacists, and the performance of technical functions by pharmacy technicians
Why did the National Association of Board of Pharmacy (NABP) implement CPE Monitor?
To maintain a respository for continuing education documentation
Which agency establishes standards for the identity, strength, quality and purity of medications, food ingredients, and dietary supplements?
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP)
Which agency operated the National Medication Errors Reporting Program?
The Institute for Safe Medication Practices( ISMP)
Which agency enforces standards that promote safe and healthful working conditions?
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Types of pharmacy literature
1. Primary literature: Includes original reports of clinical trails published in professional journals
2. Secondary literature: Includes reference works, databases, and search engines
3. Tertiary literature: Encompasses textbooks based on primary and seco
Four references that states board pharmacy require pharmacies to keep on hand
1. Controlled Substances Act
2. The state's Drug Regulations and Controlled Substance Act
3. United States Pharmacopoeia-National Formulary (USP=NF)
4. Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (The Orange Book)
Two versions of United States Pharmacopeia- Drug Information (USP-DI)
USP- DI Advice for the Patient
USP-DI for the Heath Care Professional
Which publication is considered the gold standard reference on self-care and over-the-counter (OTC) medications?
Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs
Which reference contains many facts about medication product groups and individuals products and make comparisons among them?
Drug Facts and Comparsions
Which reference lists over 4,000 brand-name and generic medications with information on their usage, warnings, medication interactions, and category?
Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR)
Which section of a package insert describes circumstances in which the medication should not be used?
Examples of medications in which patient package inserts are required
1. Oral contraceptives
2. Isotretinoin (Absorica)
3. Conjugated estrogens (Premarin)
4. Metered-dose inhalers
Which online references provides formulary management and cost containment information, including wholesale price information for brand-name and generic medications?
Three online sources for medication information, medication management, and disease management