Intro and Basic Overview-Flashcards

What anicent Chinese documents listed the medicinal value of hundreds of herbs?

Pen T-Sao documents

What is the Papyrus Ebers?

An ancient Egyptian collection of 800 prescriptions that mentions 700 medications

Which publication attritubed to Ancient Rome was used by medical professionals as late as the 16th century?

De Materia Medica

What was the name of the first official pharmacopoeia followed by European apothecaries in the 15th century?

Nuovo Receptario

What was the Master, Wardens, and Society of the Art and Mystery of the Apothecaries of the City of London?

The first organization of pharmacists, established in 1617

What was the major contribution of John Morgan to the field of pharmacy?

He was the first hospital pharmacist to support the use of written prescriptions.

What was the first book of medication standards accepted nationally across the US?

The United States Pharmacopoeia (USP)

The four eras of pharmacy in the 20th century

1. Traditional era
2. Scientific era
3. Clinical era
4. Pharmaceutical care era

How is the role of the pharmacy technician expanding in some states?

Some states are allowing technicians to perform immunizations.

What is the purpose of medication reconciliation?

Avoiding medication errors that include omissions, duplications, dosing errors, or medication interactions

The tasks performed by the pharmacy technician allow the pharmacist to spend more time providing which professional and clinical services

Counseling patients
Monitoring therapy
Performing inteventions

The two general types of activities performed by a pharmacy technician

Preparing prescriptions and maintaining the pharmacy department

Three tasks a pharmacy technician can perform when a patient arrives at a community pharmacy counter

1. Accept new prescriptions from patients
2. Obtain patient health information
3. Enter data in the computer that includes patient, prescriber, and prescription information

Two tasks a pharmacy technician can perform over the phone

1. Receive refill requests from patients
2. Receive refill authorizations from nurses or physcians

Three pharmacy technician tasks associated with filling prescriptions

1. Retrieve medications from shelves
2. Print prescriptions labels and accompanying patient medication guides
3. Prepare medications for a pharmacist to check

Four pharmacy technician activities associated with maintaining the pharmacy department

1. Maintain medication and equipment inventory
2. Stock pharmacy supplies
3. Keep accurate records for the pharmacy department
4. Help patients locate over-the-counter (OTC) medications available without a prescription

Educational requirements for pharmacists

1. Graduation with a PharmD degree (two years of prepharmacy classes and four years of study at an accredited college)
2. Completion of an internship
3. Passing a pharmacy law exam administered by a state board of pharmacy

Education paths for the pharmacy technician

1. Formalized pharmacy technician training programs (certificates, diplomas, associate of applied science degrees)
2. On the job training (formal employer-based programs or job shadowing)
3. High school career and technical educational programs

Examples of pharmacy technician duties that might be within scope of practice depending on state laws

1. Receiving verbal prescription orders from prescribers
2. Transferring prescriptions from one pharmacy to another
3. Verifying prescription medications that do not require determinations based on clinical judgment
4. Immunizing patients

What is a possible consequence of violating patient confidentiality?

Exposing the pharmacy to a lawsuit

Two major areas of a pharmacy department

The medication storage area
The dispensing work area

Two methods of arranging storage bays

1. Alphabetically by medication name
2. By dosage form

What is the purpose of a speed shelf?

Providing quick access to medications that are prescribed most often

Three sections of the pharmacy counter

1. In-window
2. Out-window
3. Counseling area

What is the purpose of the counseling area?

To provide an area out the way of customer traffic to protect patient privacy while being counseled by the pharmacist

Three functional components of the data entry area

1. The to-be-entered section
2. The to-be-filled section
3. The staging section

How are prescriptions organized in the to-be-filled section of the data entry area?

By pick-up times

Which items are placed in the staging section of the data entry area?

1. The label
2. The original prescription order
3. Stock bottles of medication to dispense

Which items are found in the dispensing area?

1. Counting equipment, counting trays, and automatic pill counters
2. Distilled water dispenser
3. Prescription containers
4. Auxilliary labels

Which types of products are made in the compounding area?

Nonsterile products such as creams, ointments, lotions, and gels

How are professional standards different from statutes and regulations?

Professional standards are set forth by the profession but, unlike statutes and regulations, are not enforceable by law

What is the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938?

Law that was enacted to ensure that all medications are pure and safe and that resulted in the creation of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

What is The Durham-Humphrey Admendment of 1951?

A piece of legislation that distinguished prescription medications from over-the-counter (OTC) medications by requiring adequate directions for use unless the medication contains the federal legend statement

Which law requires that prescribers are assigned a DEA number?

Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970

What was the result of the Drug Listing Act of 1972?

All medications are assigned a National Drug Code (NDC) number, a 10-digit identification number.

What is the primary role of a state board of pharmacy?

To regulate the operation of pharmacy departments, the practice of pharmacy by pharmacists, and the performance of technical functions by pharmacy technicians

Why did the National Association of Board of Pharmacy (NABP) implement CPE Monitor?

To maintain a respository for continuing education documentation

Which agency establishes standards for the identity, strength, quality and purity of medications, food ingredients, and dietary supplements?

The United States Pharmacopeia (USP)

Which agency operated the National Medication Errors Reporting Program?

The Institute for Safe Medication Practices( ISMP)

Which agency enforces standards that promote safe and healthful working conditions?

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

Types of pharmacy literature

1. Primary literature: Includes original reports of clinical trails published in professional journals
2. Secondary literature: Includes reference works, databases, and search engines
3. Tertiary literature: Encompasses textbooks based on primary and seco

Four references that states board pharmacy require pharmacies to keep on hand

1. Controlled Substances Act
2. The state's Drug Regulations and Controlled Substance Act
3. United States Pharmacopoeia-National Formulary (USP=NF)
4. Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (The Orange Book)

Two versions of United States Pharmacopeia- Drug Information (USP-DI)

USP- DI Advice for the Patient
USP-DI for the Heath Care Professional

Which publication is considered the gold standard reference on self-care and over-the-counter (OTC) medications?

Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs

Which reference contains many facts about medication product groups and individuals products and make comparisons among them?

Drug Facts and Comparsions

Which reference lists over 4,000 brand-name and generic medications with information on their usage, warnings, medication interactions, and category?

Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR)

Which section of a package insert describes circumstances in which the medication should not be used?


Examples of medications in which patient package inserts are required

1. Oral contraceptives
2. Isotretinoin (Absorica)
3. Conjugated estrogens (Premarin)
4. Metered-dose inhalers

Which online references provides formulary management and cost containment information, including wholesale price information for brand-name and generic medications?

Red Book

Three online sources for medication information, medication management, and disease management

Lexicomp Online
Epocrates Online