Ethics in CJ test 2

At which of the following levels of moral development might we place a person whose moral values and principles are self-chosen, arrived at through independent reflection?


Perhaps characteristic of those having reached higher stages of moral development, civil disobedience refers to:

A peaceful refusal to obey laws that are felt to be unjust.

Research indicates that law enforcement officers who have a college education are, on average, better able to empathize, communicate, and are generally more ethical than those who do not.


According to Kohlberg, if we "stay on the right path," most people will eventually reach the postconventional level of moral development.


According to Kohlberg, civil disobedience is characteristic of the most advanced stage of moral reasoning.


Natural law theorists might argue that a law is unjust if it has which of the following characteristics?

All of the above:It is discriminatory,
It is unjustly applied,
It is degrading to humans

A teenager in a neighborhood or school, engages in lawbreaking behavior to achieve a reputation or gain status among peers would be most consistent with which of the following stages of moral development:

Interpersonal exchange and conformity

Engaging in actions such as environmental terrorism, draft-dodging, or committing illegal acts to advance the cause of justice would reflect a preconventional level of development in Kohlberg's model.


Based on Kohlberg's model of moral development, committing illegal acts for the purpose of fighting injustice would (or should) be less morally reprehensible than criminality motivated by vigilante justice.


Carol Gilligan's work utilizing the "Heinz Dilemma" revealed that males tend to resolve moral dilemmas using impartial principles, while females tend to focus on finding alternative solutions that take into account the needs of all people involved.


Using drugs to earn respect from one's peers most closely resembles the reasoning characteristic of which level of moral development?


According to Kohlberg, which of the following likely plays an important role in our progression through higher stages of moral development?

Role-taking opportunities

Which of the following terms refers to the process of making an effort to understand how each person involved in a situation perceives it and, further, imagining how each person would feel if placed in the others' position?

Golden Rule role taking

According to Kohlberg, which of the following stages of moral development do the vast majority of people fail to reach?

Universal ethical principals

Though Nazi leaders and war criminals had not committed "crimes" according to German law at the time, we (and the United Nations) might argue that they had committed:

Crimes against humanity

Which of the following, based in research indicating gender differences in responses to moral dilemmas, suggests that we reserve a greater role for compassion, interpersonal relationships, and concern for and responsiveness to the welfare of others in our

Care ethics

Reasoning such as, "killing is wrong because it is against the law" or "abortion is wrong because the Bible says so" is characteristic of the law-and-order orientation and stage of moral development.


Carol Gilligan's work on moral development implies that morality may develop out of two different orientations: a "male" approach focusing on __________________' and a "female" approach grounded in ____________________.

Justice and rights; compassion and interpersonal relationships

Which of the following ethical frameworks suggests that morality should be linked to human nature, including a concern for human dignity and universal human rights?

Natural Law

The notion of moral development implies that some beliefs, values, and ways-of-thinking about moral issues reflect a more advanced and desirable form of ethical judgment.