Chapter 25-28 (Lecture)

Respiratory System

The __________ provides the means for gas exchange required by living cell. Oxygen must be supplied without interruption, without interruption, and carbon dioxide, a waste product generated by the cells, must be continuously expelled.

Conducting Portion

__________, which transports air. Includes the nose, nasal cavity, and pharynx of the upper respiratory tract and the larynx, trachea, and progressively smaller airways (from the main bronchi to the terminal bronchioles) of the lower respiratory tract.

Respiratory Portion

The __________ is composed of small airways called respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts as well as air sacs called alveoli in the lower respiratory tract.


The primary function most of us associate with the respiratory system is __________, also termed pulmonary ventilation, consists of two phases: inhalation and exhalation.


__________, also called inspiration, draws gases into the lungs.


__________, also called expiration, forces gases out of the lungs.

External Respiration

__________ involves the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood. Oxygen in the atmosphere is inhaled into the lungs.

Internal Respiration

__________ involves the exchange of gases between the blood and the cells of the body. Blood transports oxygen from the lungs to the body cells and transports carbon dioxide produced by the body cells to the lungs.

Upper Respiratory Tract

The __________ is composed of the nose and nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, and associated structures. These structures are all part of the conducting portion of the respiratory system.


The __________ is the main conducting airway for inhaled air.

Nasal Bones

The nose is supported superiorly by paired __________ that form the bridge of the nose.

Dorsum Nasi

Anteroinferiorly from the bridge of the nose is the fleshy, cartilaginous __________.

Lateral Cartilages

The dorsum nasi is supported by one pair of __________ and two pairs of alar cartilages.

Alar Cartilages

The dorsum nasi is supported by one pair of lateral cartilages and two pairs of __________.


Paired __________, or nares, open on the inferior surface of the nose.

Nasal Cavity

The internal surface of the nose leads to the __________.


The nasal cavity is continuous posteriorly with the nasopharynx via paired openings called __________, or internal nares.


The interior region of the nasal cavity, near the nostrils, is called the __________.


Near the vestibule are coarse hairs called __________ that help trap larger particles before they pass through the nasal cavity.

Olfactory Epithelium

The most superior part of the nasal cavity contains the __________, which is composed of both a pseudo stratified ciliated columnar epithelium and olfactory receptor cells.

Nasal Septum

The __________ divides the nasal cavity into left and right portions.

Septal Nasal Cartilage

The nasal septum is formed anteriorly by __________. A thin, bony sheet formed by the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone (superiorly) and the vomer bone (inferiorly) forms the posterior part of the nasal septum.

Nasal Conchae

Along the lateral walls of the nasal cavity are three paired, bony projections; the superior, middle, and inferior __________.
letter A, B, C

Nasal Meatus

The nasal conchae subdivide the nasal cavity into separate air passages; superior, middle, and inferior __________. Are located immediately inferior to their corresponding nasal conchae.
letter D, E, F


Respiratory System Functions

Gas Conditioning

The gases are warmed to body temperature by being in close contact with the nasal blood vessels transporting warm blood. The gases are humidified (moistened), and cleansed of particulate matter through contact with the respiratory epithelium and its stick

Sound Production

As air is forced out of the lungs and moves through the larynx, sound may be produced, such as speech or singing. Other anatomic structures aid sound production, including the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, teeth, lips, and tongue. (GGSOD)


The superior region of the nasal cavity is covered with olfactory epithelium, which contains receptors for the sense of smell. These receptors are stimulated when airborne molecules are inhaled and dissolved in the mucus covering this Olfactory epithelium


The nose is lined with coarse hairs, and has twisted passageways to prevent large particles from entering. Numerous goblet cells are dispersed throughout the epithelium lining of the upper respiratory tract. Mucous covering keep it from drying out and als

Paranasal Sinuses

Four bones of the skull contain paired air spaces called the __________, which together decrease skull bone weight. These spaces are named for the bones in which they are housed; from a superior to inferior direction, they are the frontal, ethmoidal, sphe


The common space used by both the respiratory and digestive systems is the __________, commonly called the throat. Is partitioned into three adjoining regions (listed from superior to inferior): the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx.


The __________ is the superior most region of the pharynx. It is lined with a pseudo stratified ciliated columnar epithelium. Normally, only air passes through. Material from the oral cavity and oropharynx is typically blocked from entering by the soft pa

Auditory Tubes

In the lateral walls of the nasopharynx, paired __________ (eustachian tubes or pharyngotympanic tubes) connect the nasopharynx to the middle ear. Equalize air pressure between the middle ear and the atmosphere by allowing excess air pressure to be releas

Pharyngeal Tonsil

The posterior nasopharynx wall also houses a single __________ (commonly called the adenoids)


The middle pharyngeal region, the __________. It is a common respiratory and digestive pathway through which both air and swallowed food and drink pass. Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium lining.


The __________ (throat) is the opening that represents the threshold for entry into the oropharynx from the oral cavity.


The inferior, narrowed region of the pharynx is the __________. It extends inferiorly from the hyoid bone and is continuous with the larynx and esophagus. Is lined with a nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium because it permits passage of both foo

Palatine/Lingual Tonsils

Lymphatic organs in the oropharynx provide the "first line of defense" against ingested or inhaled foreign materials. The __________ are on the lateral wall between the arches, and the __________ are at the base of the tongue.

Lower Respiratory Tract

The __________ is made up of conducting airways (larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles) as well as the respiratory portion of the respiratory system (respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli).


The __________, also called the voice box. It is continuous superiorly with the laryngopharynx and inferiorly with the trachea. Formed and supported by a framework of nine pieces of cartilage that are held in place by ligaments and muscles.


The larynx has several major functions:

Serves as a Passageway for Air

The larynx is normally open to allow the passage of air during pulmonary ventilation. (SPPAP)

Prevents Ingested Materials from Entering the Respiratory Tract

During swallowing, the superior opening of the larynx is covered to prevent ingested materials from entering the lower respiratory passageway. (SPPAP)

Produces Sound for Speech

Ligaments within the larynx, called vocal cords, vibrate as air is passed over them during an exhalation. (SPPAP)

Assists in Increasing Pressure in the Abdominal Cavity

The epiglottis closes over the larynx so air cannot escape; simultaneously abdominal muscles contract to increase abdominal pressure. This action is referred to as the valsalva maneuver. (SPPAP)

Valsalva Maneuver

You can experience the increase in abdominal pressure associated with the __________ by holding your breath while forcefully contracting your abdominal muscles.

Participates in Both a Sneeze and Cough Reflex

A sneeze and a cough both result in an explosive blast of exhaled air. This occurs when the abdominal muscles contract forcefully and the vocal cords are initially closed. They open abruptly as the pressure increases in the thoracic cavity. (SPPAP)

Laryngeal Inlet

The opening that connects the pharynx and larynx is called the __________, laryngeal aperture, or laryngeal aditus.


The anatomic arrangement of the nine cartilages includes the __________. All cartilages of the larynx, except the epiglottis, are composed of hyaline cartilage.

Thyroid Cartilage

The __________ is the largest laryngeal cartilage. Shaped like a shield, it forms the lateral and anterior walls of the larynx.

Laryngeal Prominence

The almost V-shaped anterior projection of the thyroid cartilage is called the __________ (Adam's apple). This protuberance is generally larger in males because (1) laryngeal inlet is narrower in males (90 degrees) than in females (120 degrees), and (2) i

Cricoid Cartilage

Inferior to the thyroid cartilage is the ring-shaped __________.


The large, spoon- or leaf-shaped __________ is anchored to the inner aspect of the thyroid cartilage and projects posterosuperiorly into the pharynx. Opens and close over the laryngeal inlet, is composed of the more flexible elastic cartilage.

Arytenoid/Corniculate/Cuneiform Cartilages

The three smaller, paired cartilages, the __________ , the __________, and __________ are located internally.

Extrinsic Ligaments

__________ attach to the external surface of laryngeal cartilages of the larynx and extend to other structures that include the hyoid bone and trachea.

Intrinsic Ligaments

The __________ are located within the larynx and include both vocal ligaments and vestibular ligaments.

Vocal Ligaments

The __________ are composed primarily of elastic connective tissue and extend anterior to posterior between the thyroid cartilage and the arytenoid cartilages. These ligaments are covered with a mucous membrane to form the vocal folds.

Vocal Folds

__________ also are called the true vocal cords because they produce sound when air passes between them. They are distinctive from the surrounding tissue because they are avascular and white in color.

Rima Glottidis

The opening between vocal folds is called the __________.


Together the vocal folds and the rima glottidis form the __________.

Vestibular Ligaments

The __________ form the other intrinsic ligaments. These extend between the thyroid cartilage to the arytenoid and corniculate cartilages.

Vestibular Folds

Vestibular ligaments together with the mucosa covering them, they form the __________ located superior to the vocal folds. These folds also are called the false vocal cords because they have no function in sound production, but serve to protect the vocal

Extrinsic Muscles

The __________ of the larynx originate on either the hyoid bone or the sternum and insert on the thyroid cartilage. Normally stabilize the larynx and help move it during swallowing.

Intrinsic Muscles

The __________ of the larynx are located within the larynx and attach to both the arytenoid and corniculate cartilages. Contraction causes the arytenoid cartilages to pivot resulting in a change in the dimensions of the rima glottidis.

Gas Exchange

The continuous movement of gases into and out of the lungs is necessary for the process of __________. External respiration and internal respiration. (GGSOD)

Rima Vestibuli

The opening between vestibular folds is called the __________.


The characteristics of the sound production include __________, __________, and __________.


The __________ of a voice (be it sprang or bass) is determined by the length and thickness of the vocal folds. Males generally have longer and thicker folds that do females and thus males produce sounds that are in a lower __________.


__________ refers to the frequency of sound waves. Is determined by the amount of tension or tautness on the vocal folds as regulated primarily by the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. Increasing the tension on the vocal folds causes the vocal folds to vibrate


__________ depends upon the force of the air passing across the vocal cords. A lot of air forced through the rim glottides produces a loud sound, whereas a little air produces a soft sound.


The __________ is a flexible, slightly rigid tubular organ often referred to as the "windpipe". Extends through the mediastinum and lies immediately anterior to the esophagus, inferior to the larynx, and superior to the main bronchi of the lungs. Averages

Tracheal Cartilages

The anterior and lateral walls of the trachea are supported by 15 to 20 C-shaped __________. These hyaline cartilages "rings" reinforce and provide some rigidity to the tracheal wall to ensure that the trachea remains open (patent) at all times.

Anular Ligaments

The cartilage rings are connected by elastic connective tissue sheets called __________.

Trachealis Muscle

The open ends of each C-shaped piece are bound together by the __________ and an elastic ligamentous membrane.

Main Bronchi

At the level of the sternal angel, the trachea bifurcates into two smaller tubes, called the right and left __________. Each projects inferiorly and laterally toward a lung. The right enters the lung more vertically than the left. The right bronchus is al


The most inferior tracheal cartilage separates the main bronchi at their origin and forms and internal ridge called the __________.

Bronchial Tree

The __________ is a highly branched system of air-conducting passages that originate from the left and right main bronchi and progressively branch into narrower tubes as they diverge throughout the lungs before ending in terminal bronchioles.

Lobar Bronchi

Each main bronchus then branches into __________ (or secondary bronchi). The left lung has two branches, the right lung has three branches. Are smaller in diameter than main bronchi.

Segmental Bronchi

The lobar bronchi further divide into __________. The right lung is supplied by 10 branches, and the left lung is supplied by 8 to 10 branches. Also called a tertiary bronchus, supplies a part of the lung called a bronchopulmonary segment.

First Bronchi Common Characteristics

Incomplete rings of cartilage in the walls become less numbers and smaller. Eventually, there are only scattered pieces of cartilage as the bronchi continue to divide and decrease in diameter.

Second Bronchi Common Characteristics

The largest branches of bronchi are lined by a pseudo stratified ciliated columnar epithelium, whereas smaller branches of bronchi are lined by a ciliated columnar epithelium.

Third Bronchi Common Characteristics

A complete ring of smooth muscle is found between the mucosa of the airways and the cartilaginous support in the wall.


The bronchi branch into smaller and smaller tubules that eventually reach a diameter of less than 1mm. These smaller tubules, called __________, are no longer lined with pseudo stratified ciliated columnar epithelium, but with simple columnar or simple cu


Contraction of the smooth muscle narrow bronchioles called __________.


Relaxation of the smooth muscles dilates bronchioles called __________.

Terminal Bronchioles

The __________ are the final segment of the conducting pathway. They conduct air into the respiratory portion of the respiratory system.

Respiratory Bronchioles

Terminal bronchioles branch to form the __________. Subsequent partitioning to form smallest subdivides into alveolar ducts.

Alveolar Ducts

Eventually, the smallest respiratory bronchioles subdivide into thin airways called __________, which are lined with a simple squamous epithelium.

Alveolar Sac

The distal end of an alveolar duct terminates as a dilated __________.


Both respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts contain small saccular outpocketings called __________. It is about 0.25 to 5 mm in diameter. Its thin wall is specialized to promote diffusion of gases between the alveolus and the blood in the pulmonary ca

Alveolar Pores

The small openings in the walls between adjacent alveoli.

Interalveolar Septum

The __________ contains elastic fibers that contribute to the ability of the lungs to stretch during inhalation and recoil during exhalation.

Alveolar Type I Cell

Two cell types form the alveolar wall. The predominant cell is an __________, also called a squamous alveolar cell. This simple squamous epithelial cell promotes rapid gas diffusion across the alveolar wall.

Alveolar Type II Cell

The __________, called a septal cell, is part of a smaller population of cells within the alveolar wall. Typically, it displays an almost cuboidal shape. Secrete pulmonary surfactant.

Pulmonary Surfactant

__________, a fluid composed of lipids and proteins that coats the inner alveolar surface to reduce surface tension and prevent the collapse of the alveoli.

Alveolar Macrophages

__________, or dust cells, may be either fixed or free. Fixed remain within the connective tissue of the alveolar walls, whereas free are migratory cells that continually crawl within the alveoli, engulfing any microorganisms or particulate material that

Respiratory Membrane

The __________ is the thin wall between the alveolar lumen and the blood. It consists of the plasma membranes of an alveolar type I cell, and an endothelial cell of a capillary, and their fused basement membranes. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged h


The outer lung surfaces and the adjacent internal thoracic wall are lined by a serous membrane called __________, which is formed from simple squamous epithelium called a mesothelium.

Visceral Pleura

The outer surface of each lung is tightly covered by the __________.

Parietal Pleura

The internal thoracic walls, the lateral surfaces of the mediastinum, and the super surface of the diaphragm are lined by the __________.

Pleural Cavity

The __________ is a space located between the visceral and parietal serous membrane layers. When the lungs are fully inflated, it is considered a potential space because the visceral and parietal pleurae are almost in contact with each other.


The paired, spongy lungs are the primary organs of respiration. Each lung has a conical shape. Its wide, concave __________ rests inferiorly upon the muscular diaphragm, and its relatively blunt superior region, called the __________ (or cupola), projects

Costal Surface

The relatively broad, rounded surface in contact with the thoracic wall is called the __________ of the lung.

Mediastinal Surface

The __________ of the lung is directed medially, facing the mediastinum and slightly concave in shape.


The mediastinal surface houses the vertical, indented __________ through which the bronchi, pulmonary vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves pass.


Collectively, all structures passing through the hilum are termed the __________ of the lung.

Cardiac Impression

The left lung has a medial surface indentation, called the __________, that is formed by the heart.

Cardiac Notch

The left lung also has an anterior indented region called the __________.

Superior/Middle/Inferior Lobes

The right lung is subdivide into __________, __________, and __________ lobes by two fissures. The left lung has only two lobes.

Horizontal Fissure

The __________ separates the superior from the middle lobe. In the right lung only.

Oblique Fissure

The __________ separates the middle from the inferior lobe. In both left and right lung.


The __________ of the left lung is located on the superior lobe. Its is homologous to the middle lobe of the right lung.

Bronchopulmonary Segments

The left and right lungs may be partitioned into __________ - 10 in the right, and typically 8-10 in the left lung. The discrepancy in number for the left lung comes from the merging or lumping of some left into combined ones by some anatomist.

Pulmonary Circulation

The __________ conducts blood to and from the gas exchange surfaces of the lungs to replenish its depleted oxygen levels and get rid of excess carbon dioxide.

Bronchial Circulation

The __________ is a component of the systemic circulation consists of tiny bronchial arteries and veins that supply the bronchi and bronchioles of the lung. This part of the circulatory system is much smaller than the pulmonary system, because most tiny r

Bronchial Arteries/Veins

About three or four tiny __________ branch from the anterior wall of the descending thoracic aorta and divide to form capillary beds to supply structures in the bronchial tree. Increasingly larger __________ collect vice blood and drain into the azygos an

Pulmonary Lymph Nodes

The lymph nodes collect carbon, dust particles, and pollutants that were not filtered out by the pseudo stratified ciliated columnar epithelium. The lymph from the lung is conducted first to __________ within the lungs.
number 3

Bronchopulmonary Lymph Nodes

Lymphatic vessel exit the pulmonary lymph nodes and conduct lymph to __________ located at the hilum of the lung.
number 6

Tracheobronchial Lymph Nodes

Bronchopulmonary lymph nodes drain into the __________.
number 2

Left/Right Bronchomediastinal Trunk

Tracheobronchial lymph nodes and then into the __________. It then drains into the right lymphatic duct, wears the left drains into the thoracic duct.
number 8

Pulmonary Ventilation

Breathing, also known as __________, is the movement of air into and out of the respiratory system.

Quiet Breathing

__________ is the rhythmic breathing that occurs at rest.

Forced Breathing

__________ is vigorous breathing that accompanies exercise or hard exertion.


Gas exchange is organized into four continuous and simultaneously occurring processes:

Pulmonary Ventilation

Movement of respiratory gases between the atmosphere and the alveoli of the lungs. (PAGS)

Alveolar Gas Exchange

Exchange of respiratory gases between the alveoli and blood (or external respiration). (PAGS)

Gas Transport

Transport of respiratory gases within the blood between the lungs and systemic cells of the body. (PAGS)

Systemic Gas Exchange

Exchange of respiratory gases between the blood and systemic cells of the body (or internal respiration). (PAGS)

Boyle's Law

The movement of gases into and out of the respiratory system follows __________, which states, "The pressure of a gas decreases if the volume of the container increases, and vise versa." When the volume of the thoracic cavity increases even slightly durin


The skeletal muscles of breathing are classified into the following three categories:

Muscles of Quiet Breathing

__________ are involved in normal rhythmic breathing that occurs at rest. They are the diaphragm and the external intercostals. (QIH)

Muscles of Forced Inhalation

__________ are used during a deep inhalation, such as occurs during heavy exercise.

Muscles of Forced Exhalation

__________ contract during a hard exhalation when one blows up a balloon or coughs.

Pulmonary Plexus

Collectively, the sympathetic and parasympathetic axons form the __________, a weblike network of axons that surrounds the main bronchi and enters the lungs at the hilum.

Medullary/Pontine Respiratory Center

The skeletal muscles of breathing are coordinated by nuclei within the brainstem. These regulatory nuclei are housed specifically in the __________ within the medulla oblongata and the __________ (also called the pneumatic center) within the pons.

Respiratory Center

The medullary respiratory center and the pontine respiratory center are collectively called the __________.

Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG)

There are two distinct groups of nuclei in the medullary respiratory center. The __________ is a column of neurons located in the ventrolateral region of the medulla that contains neurons of both inhalation and exhalation. This initiates neural impulses f

Dorsal Respiratory Group (DRG)

Posterior to the VRG in the dorsomedial region of the medulla is the __________, which relays its input to the VRG.

Phrenic/Intercostal Nerves

Axons from upper motor neurons extend from the VRG into the spinal cord. Axons from lower motor neurons extend from the spinal cord and form both the __________ that innovate the diaphragm and __________ that innervate the intercostal muscles.

Pontine Respiratory Center

The __________ is located within the pons and modifies the activity of the nuclei in the medulla. It appears to provide for a smooth transition between inhalation and exhalation by sending impulses to the VRG. Erratic breathing results if this area is dam


The average range for the rate of quiet breathing is generally between 12 and 15 times per minute, a rate referred to as __________.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Two distinct diseases, emphysema and chronic bronchitis, together encompass __________, which is often related to tobacco use. The condition is characterized by lung structural abnormalities resulting from inflammation. The resulting airflow obstruction m


The respiratory system becomes less efficient with age due to several structural changes.

Decrease in Elastic

First, aging results in a __________ connective tissue in the lungs and the thoracic cavity wall. This loss reduces the amount of gas that can be exchanged with each breath and results in a decrease in the ventilation rate. (DEA)


A condition such as __________ may cause a loss of alveoli or a decrease in their functionality. The resulting reduced capacity for gas exchange can cause an older person to become "short of breath" upon exertion. (DEA)


Carbon, dust, and pollution material gradually __________ in our lymph nodes and lungs. (DEA)

Digestive System

The __________ includes the organs that ingest the food, mix and transport the ingested material, digest the material into smaller usable components, absorb the necessary digested nutrients into the blood and expel the waste products from the body.


The chewed food mixed with saliva is called a __________, and it is this that is swallowed.


The stomach processes the bolus and turns it into a paste like substance called __________.

GI Tract/Accessory Digestive Organs

The digestive system has two separate categories of organs; those composing the __________, and the __________.

Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract

The __________ is also called either the digestive tract or alimentary canal. its organs essentially form a continuous tube that includes the oral cavity (mouth), pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anal canal, and ends

Accessory digestive Organs

__________ are not part of the long GI tract, but often develop as outgrowths from and are connected to the GI tract. Its organs assist the GI tract in the digestion of material. Include the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas


The digestive system performs six main functions:


__________ is the introduction of solid and liquid materials into the oral cavity (mouth). It is the first step in the process of digesting and absorbing nutrients. (IMSDAE)


After the materials are swallowed, voluntary and involuntary muscular contractions mix and move materials through the GI tract. These movements are termed __________. Involves peristalsis and mixing. (IMSDAE)


__________ is the process of muscular contraction that forms ripples along part of the GI tract and forces material to move further along the tract.


Churning movements in the small intestine, called __________, help disperse the material being digested and combine it with digestive organ secretions. The material within the lumen of the small intestine is move back-and-forth to mix it with the secretor


__________ is the process of producing and releasing mucin (protects) or fluids such as acid, bile, and digestive enzymes (digest). When these products are secreted into the lumen of the GI tract, they facilitate chemical digestion and the passage of mate


__________ is the breakdown of large food items into smaller structures and molecules. There are two aspects: mechanical digestion and chemical digestion.

Mechanical Digestion

__________ physically breaks down ingested material into smaller pieces.

Chemical Digestion

__________ breaks down ingested material into smaller molecules by using enzymes.


The first part of mechanical digestion is __________, the chewing of ingested material by the teeth in the oral cavity.


__________ involves either passive movement or active transport of electrolytes, digestion products, vitamins, and water across the GI tract epithelium and into GI tract blood and lymph vessels.


The final function of the digestive system is the __________ of wastes.


All undigestible materials as well as the waste products secreted by the accessory organs into the GI tract are compacted into __________, or fecal material.


Feces are eliminated from the GI tract by the process of __________.

Oral Cavity

The __________, or mouth, is the entrance to the GI tract. Is the initial site of mechanical digestion and chemical digestion. The epithelial lining of the oral cavity is a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that protects against the abrasive

Vestibule/Oral Cavity Proper

The oral cavity has two distinct regions: The __________ is the space between the cheeks or lips and the gums. The __________ lies central to the alveolar processes of the mandible and maxillae.


The cheeks terminate at the fleshy __________ (or labia), which form the anterior wall of the oral cavity. Are formed primarily by the orbicular oris muscle and covered with keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.


The __________, or gums, are composed of dense irregular connective tissue, with an overlying non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that covers the alveolar processes of the upper and lower jaws and surrounds the necks of the teeth.

Labial Frenulum

The internal surfaces of the superior and inferior lips each are attached to the gingival by a thin mucosa fold in the midline, called the __________.


The __________ forms the superior boundary, or "roof", of the oral cavity and acts as barrier to separate it from the nasal cavity The anterior two-thirds of the palate is hard and bony (hard palate), whereas the posterior one-third is soft and muscular (

Hard Palate

The __________ is formed by the palatine processes of the maxillae and the horizontal plates of the palatine bones. It is covered with dense connective tissue and non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium and exhibits prominent transverse palatine fo

Transverse Palatine Folds

__________, or friction ridges, in hard palate that assist the tongue in manipulating ingested materials prior to swallowing.

Soft Palate

The posterior one-third of the palate is the arching __________, is primarily composed of skeletal muscle and covered with non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.


Extending inferiorly from the posterior part of the soft palate is a conical median projection called the __________.

Palatoglossal/Palatopharyngeal Arch

The fauces are bounded by paired muscular folds: the __________ (anterior fold containing the palatoglossus muscle) and the __________ (posterior fold containing the palatopharyngeal muscle).

Palatine Tonsils

The __________ are housed between Palatoglossal/Palatopharyngeal arches. These tonsils serve as an "early line of defense" as they monitor ingested food and drink for antigens, and initiate an immune response when necessary.


The __________ is an accessory digestive organ that is formed primarily from skeletal muscle and covered with stratified squamous epithelium. (sound, mixing, swallowing)


Numerous small projections, termed __________, cover the superior (dorsal) surface of the tongue.

Lingual Frenulum

The inferior surface of the tongue attaches to the floor of the oral cavity by a thin, vertical mucous membrane, the __________.

Lingual Tonsils

The posteroinferior surface of the tongue contains the __________.


The salivary glands collectively produce and secret __________, (99.5% water) a fluid that assists in the initial activities of digestion. Is produced during mealtime, but smaller amounts are produced continuously to ensure that the oral cavity mucous mem

Intrinsic Salivary Glands

A small amount of saliva is produced by unicellular glands within the oral cavity, collectively known as __________.

Lingual Lipase

The intrinsic salivary glands are responsible for secreting __________, an enzyme that is activated by the low pH levels in the stomach to break down lipids.

Extrinsic Salivary Glands

Most saliva is produced from multicellular exocrine glands outside the oral cavity called __________. Three pairs of multicellular salivary glands are located external to the oral cavity: the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands.

Parotid Salivary Glands

The __________ are the largest salivary glands. Each is located anterior and slightly inferior to the ear, partially overlying the master muscle. Produce about 25-30% of the saliva through the parotid duct to the oral cavity. Produce only serous secretion

Parotid Duct

The __________ extends from the gland, parallel to the zygomatic arch, before penetrating the buccinator muscle and opening into the vestibule of the oral cavity near the second upper molar.

Submandibular Salivary Glands

The __________ are inferior to the body of the mandible. They produce most of the saliva (about 60-70% through the submandibular duct. Mucous and serous secretions.

Submandibular Duct

A __________ transports saliva from each gland through a papilla in the floor of the mouth on the lateral sides of the lingual frenulum.

Sublingual Salivary Glands

The __________ are inferior to the tongue and internal to the oral cavity mucosa through multiple tiny sublingual ducts. Contribute only about 3-5% of the total saliva. Mucous and serous secretions.

Sublingual Ducts

Each sublingual salivary gland extends multiple tiny __________ that open onto the inferior surface of the oral cavity, posterior to the submandibular duct papilla.

Mucous/Serous Cells

Two types of secretory cells are housed in the salivary glands: __________ secrete mucin, which forms mucus upon hydration, whereas __________ secrete a watery fluid containing ions, lysozyme, and salivary amylase.


The teeth are collectively known as the __________. Teeth are responsible for mastication, the first part of the mechanical digestion process.


A tooth has an exposed __________, a constricted __________, and one or more __________ that anchor it to the jaw.

Dental Alveoli

The roots of the teeth fit tightly into __________, which are sockets within the alveolar processes of both the maxillae and the mandible.

Periodontal Ligaments

Collectively, the roots, the dental alveoli and the __________ that bind the roots to the alveolar process for a gomphosis joint.


Each root of a tooth is ensheathed within hardened material called __________.


A tough, durable layer of __________ forms the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body, is composed primarily of calcium phosphate crystals.


__________ forms the primary mass of a tooth. Is comparable to bone but harder, and is deep to the cementum and the enamel.

Pulp Cavity/Pulp

The center of the tooth is a __________ that contains a connective tissue called __________.

Root Canal/Apical foramen

The __________ opens into the connective tissue through an opening called the __________ and is continuous with the pulp cavity.
number 40 & 41

Mesial Surface

The __________ of the tooth is the surface closest to the midline of the mouth.

Distal Surface

The __________ of the tooth is farthest from the mouth midline.

Buccal/Labial/Lingual/Occlusal Surface

Other tooth surfaces include: the __________ adjacent to the internal surface of the cheek; the __________, adjacent to the internal surface of the lip; the __________, facing the tongue; and the __________, where the teeth from the opposing superior and

Deciduous Teeth

In an infant, 20 __________, also called milk teeth erupt between 6 months and 30 months after birth.

Permanent Teeth

The deciduous teeth are eventually lost and replaced by 32 __________.

First/Third Molars

The more anteriorly placed permanent teeth tend to appear first, followed by the posteriorly placed teeth. Exception for the __________, which appear at about age 6, and the last teeth to erupt are the _________, often called wisdom teeth in the late teen


The most anteriorly placed permanent teeth are called __________. They are shaped like a chisel and have a single root. They are designed for slicing or cutting into food.


Immediately posterolateral to the incisors are the __________, also called cuspids, which have a pointed tip for puncturing and tearing food.


__________, also called bicuspids, are located posterolateral to the canines and anterior to the molars. May have one or two roots.


Premolars have flat crowns with prominent ridges called __________ that are used to crush and grind ingested materials.


The __________ are the thickest and most posteriorly placed teeth. They have large, broad, flat crowns with distinctive cusps, and three or more roots. Are also adapted for grinding and crushing ingested materials.


If the mouth is divided into quadrants, each quadrant contains the following number of permanent teeth:

Pharyngeal Constrictors

Three skeletal muscle pairs, called the superior, middle, and inferior __________, form the wall of the pharynx. Decreases the diameter of the pharynx, beginning at its superior end and moving toward its inferior end, thus pushing swallowed material towar

Parietal Peritoneum

The portion of the serous membrane that lines the inside surface of the body wall is called the __________.

Visceral Peritoneum

The portion of the serous membrane that folds back (reflects) to cover the surface of internal organs is called the __________.

Peritoneal Cavity

Between the parietal/visceral peritoneum is the __________, a potential space where the peritoneal layers that face each other secrete a lubricating serous fluid.

Intraperitoneal Organs

Within the abdomen, organs that are completely surrounded by visceral peritoneum are called __________. They include the stomach, part of the duodenum of the small intestine, the jejunum and the ileum of the small intestine, the cecum, the appendix, and t

Retroperitoneal Organs

__________ typically lie directly against the posterior abdominal wall, so only their anterolateral portions are covered with peritoneum. Includes most of the duodenum, the pancreas, the ascending and descending colon of the large intestine, and the rectu


The __________ are folds of peritoneum that support and stabilize the intraperitoneal GI tract organs. Blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves are sandwiched between the two folds and supply the digestive organs. (GO,LO,MP,)

Greater Omentum

The __________ extends inferiorly like an apron from the greater curvature of the stomach and covers most of the abdominal organs. It often accumulates large amounts of adipose connective tissue.

Lesser Omentum

The __________ connects the lesser curvature of the stomach and the proximal end of the duodenum to the liver. May be subdivided into a hepatogastric ligament, which runs from the liver to the stomach, and a hepatoduodenal ligament, which runs from the li

Mesentery Proper

The __________ is a fan-shaped fold of peritoneum that suspends most of the small intestine from the internal surface of the posterior abdominal wall.


The peritoneal fold that attaches parts of the large intestine to the internal surface of the posterior abdominal wall is called the __________.

Peritoneal Ligament

A __________ is a peritoneal fold that attaches one organ to another organ, or attaches an organ to the anterior or lateral abdominal wall.

Peritoneal/Coronary/Lienorenal Ligament

Some examples of peritoneal ligaments include the __________, a peritoneal fold attaching the superior surface of the liver to the diaphragm at the margins of the bare area of the liver; the __________, a peritoneal fold that attaches the liver to the ant


The GI tract from the esophagus through the large intestine is a tube composed of four concentric layers, called tunics. From deep to superficial, these tunics are the:


The __________, or mucous membrane has three components: (1) an inner epithelium lining the lumen of the GI tract; (2) an underlying areolar connective tissue, called the lamina propr.; and (3) a relatively thin layer of smooth muscle, termed the muscular


The __________ is composed of either areolar or dense irregular connective tissue and has far fewer cells than the lamina propria. Include; accumulations of lymphatic tissue in some submucosal regions; mucin-secreting glands that project ducts across the

Submucosal Nerve Plexus

These nerve fibers and their associated ganglia are collectively referred to as the __________. It contains sensory neurons, sympathetic postganglionic axons, and parasympathetic ganglia.


The __________ contains two layers of smooth muscle. Exceptions to this pattern include the esophagus (which contains a mixture of skeletal and smooth muscle) and the stomach (which contains three layers of smooth muscle).

Inner Circular Layer

The fibers of the inner layer of smooth muscle are oriented circumferentially around the GI tract, and are called the __________. Contractions constrict the diameter of the tube lumen.
top line

Outer Longitudinal Layer

The fibers of the outer layer of the muscularis are oriented lengthwise along the GI tract, and are called the __________. Contractions shorten the tube.
bottom line


At specific locations along the GI tract, the inner circular muscle layer is greatly thickened to form a __________. Closes off the lumen opening at some point along the GI tract, and in so dong it can help control the movement of materials through the GI

Myenteric Nerve Plexus

The nerve fibers and the associated ganglia located between the two layers of muscularis smooth muscle control its contractions and are collectively referred to as the __________ (or auerbach plexus).


The outermost tunic may be either an __________ or a __________. An __________ is composed areolar connective tissue with dispersed collagen and elastic fibers. A __________ has the same components but is covered by a visceral peritoneum.

Celiac Trunk/Superior/Inferior Mesenteric Artery

Branches of the __________ supply the abdominal GI tract. These artery branches split into smaller branches that extend throughout the walls of the GI organs.


In the small intestine, each villus usually contains a single, blind-ended, central lymphatic capillary called a __________. Are responsible for absorbing dietary lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins.

Mucosa-Associated Lymphatic Tissue (MALT)

The lymphatic structures within the GI tract lie primarily in the lamina propr. of the mucosa. Lymphatic structures called __________ are found in the small intestine and appendix.

Peyer Patches

In the small intestine, these MALT aggregate nodules are called __________. They appear to the naked eye as oval bodies about the size of a pea, but are often much larger structures.


The nerves associated with the GI tract consist of both autonomic motor and visceral sensory axons. There are three main groups of autonomic plexuses:

Celiac Plexus

The __________ contains sympathetic axons (from the T5-T9 segments of the spinal cord) and parasympathetic axons )from the vagus nerve). This plexus supplies structures that receive their blood supply from braces of the celiac trunk.

Superior Mesenteric Plexus

The __________ contains sympathetic axons (from the T8-T12 segments of the spinal cord) and parasympathetic axons (from the vagus nerve). This plexus transmits autonomic innervation to structures that receive their blood supply from branches of the superi

Inferior Mesenteric Plexus

The __________ contains sympathetic axons (L1-L2 segments of the spinal cord) and parasympathetic axons (from the pelvic splanchnic nerves). This plexus supplies structures that receive blood from branches of the inferior mesenteric artery.


The __________ is a tubular passageway for swallowed materials being conducted from the pharynx to the stomach. About 10 inches long, when empty is flattened, the lumen only opening slightly with the passage of a food bolus.

Esophageal Hiatus

The inferior region of the esophagus connects to the stomach by passing through an opening in the diaphragm called the __________.

Superior Esophageal Sphincter

The __________ (or pharyngoesophageal sphincter) is a contracted ring of circular skeletal muscle at the superior end of the esophagus. It is the area where the esophagus and the pharynx meet. This sphincter is closed during inhalation of air so it enters

Inferior Esophageal Sphincter

The __________ (gastroesophageal, or cardiac sphincter) is a contracted ring of circular smooth muscle at the inferior end of the esophagus. This sphincter isn't strong enough alone to prevent materials from refluxing back into the esophagus; instead, the


__________, also called deglutition, is the process of moving ingested materials from the oral cavity to the stomach.

- Voluntary Phase
- Pharyngeal Phase
- Esophageal Phase

There are three phases of swallowing;

Voluntary Phase

The __________ occurs after ingestion. Food and saliva mix in the oral cavity. Chewing forms a bolus that is mixed and manipulated by the tongue and then pushed superiorly against the hard palate. Transverse palatine folds in the hard palate help direct t

Pharyngeal Phase

The arrival of the bolus at the entryway to the oropharynx initiates the __________, when tactile sensory receptors trigger the swallowing reflex, which is controlled by the swallowing center in the medulla oblongata (involuntary). Three sub phases: (1) S

Esophageal Phase

The __________ (involuntary) it is the the time about 5 to 8 seconds during which the bolus passes through the esophagus and into the stomach. This phase begins when the superior esophageal sphincter relaxes to allow ingested materials into the esophagus.


The __________ is a muscular, J-shaped sac that occupies the left upper quadrant of the abdomen, immediately inferior to the diaphragm.


The stomach is composed of four regions:


The __________ is the small, narrow, superior entry way into the stomach lumen form the esophagus.

Cardiac Orifice

The internal opening where the cardia meets the esophagus is called the __________.


The __________ is the dome-shape region lateral and superior to the esophageal connection with the stomach. Its superior surface contacts the diaphragm.


The __________ (corpus) is the largest region of the stomach; it is inferior to the cardiac orifice and the fundus.


The __________ is a narrow, medially directed, funnel-shaped pouch that forms the terminal region of the stomach. Is divided into two parts: the pyloric antrum (the more expanded region near the body) and the pyloric canal (the more narrow region that att

Pyloric Orifice

The pylorus opening into the duodenum of the small intestine is called the __________.

Pyloric Sphincter

Surrounding this pyloric orifice is a thick ring of circular smooth muscle called the __________. Relates the entrance of chyme into the small intestine.

Greater/Lesser Curvature

The inferior convex border of the stomach is the __________, whereas the superior concave border is termed the __________. The greater momentum attaches to the __________ edge of the stomach, and the lesser momentum extends between the __________ and the

Gastric Folds

Internally, the stomach lining is composed of numerous __________, or rugae. They are seen only when the stomach is empty, allowing the stomach to expand greatly when it fills and then return to its normal J-shape when it empties.

Gastric Pits

Another feature that distinguishes the stomach mucosa is that the lining is indented by numerous depressions called __________.

Gastric Glands

The gastric pits are continuous with branched tubular glands, called __________.


Gastric juices are produced by cells in the gastric glands, and their secretions are released into gastric pits, which funnel them to the lumen of the stomach. Five types of secretory cells form the gastric epithelium.

Surface Mucous Cells

__________ line the stomach lumen and extend into the gastric pits. They continuously secrete mucin onto the gastric luminal surface to prevent ulceration of the lining upon exposure to the high acidity of the gastric fluid and protect the epithelium from

Mucous Neck Cells

__________ are located immediately deep to the base of the gastric pit and are interspersed among the parietal cells. These cells produce an acidic mucin that differs structurally and functionally from the mucin secreted by the surface mucous cells. The a

Parietal Cells

__________ (also called oxyntic cells) are located primarily in the proximal and middle parts of the gastric gland. Their distinctive features are small intracellular channels called canaliculi, which are lined by microvilli. Hydrochloric acid secreted ac

Intrinsic Factor

Parietal cells also produce __________, a molecule that binds vitamin B12 in the stomach lumen and assists in B12 absorption in the ileum of the small intestine.

Chief Cells

__________ (also called zymogenic cells or peptic cells) are housed primarily in the distal part of the gastric gland. These cells synthesize and secrete enzymes, primarily inactive pepsinogen, into the lumen of the stomach. The acid content of the stomac


__________, which chemically digests denatured proteins in the stomach into smaller fragments.

Enteroendocrine Cells

__________ are endocrine cells that are widely distributed in the gastric glands of the stomach. These cells secretes gastrin and other hormones. Also produce other hormones such as somatostatin, that modulate the function of nearby enteroendocrine and ex


__________, a hormone that enters the blood and stimulates the secretory activities of the chief and parietal cells and the contractile activity of gastric muscle.

Small Intestine

__________, also called the small bowel, is a coiled, thin walled tube about 20 feet in length. It extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the cecum of the large intestine, occupying a significant portion of the abdominal cavity.


The __________ forms the initial or first segment of the small intestine. It is about 10 inches long and originates at the pyloric sphincter. Is arched into a C-shape around the head of the pancreas and becomes continuous with the jejunum at the duodenoje

Major Duodenal Papilla

Within the wall of the duodenum is the __________, through which bile (secretions released from the liver and gallbladder) and pancreatic juice enter the duodenum.

Minor Duodenal Papilla

A __________ also receives an additional small amount of pancreatic juice via an accessory pancreatic duct.


The __________ is the middle region of the small intestine. Extending about 7.5 feet, it makes up about two-fifths of the small intestine's total length. It is the primary region within the small intestine for chemical digestion and nutrient absorption.


The __________ is the final or last region of the small intestine. At about 10.8 feet in length, it forms about three-fifths of the small intestine.

Ileocecal Valve

The ileum distal end terminates at the __________, a sphincter that controls the entry of materials into the large intestine.


When circular folds are viewed at the microscopic level, smaller, fingerlike projections of mucosa only, called __________, can be seen along their surface. These further increase the surface area for absorption and secretion. Increasing the absorptive su

Intestinal Glands

Between some of the intestinal villi are invaginations of mucosa called __________ (also known as intestinal crypts or crypts of lieberkuhn). These glands extend to the base of the mucosa and slightly resemble the gastric glands of the stomach.

Submucosal Glands

Distinctive histologic features characterize the three small intestine regions. The proximal duodenum contains __________ ( or brunner glands), which produce a viscous, alkaline mucus that protects the duodenum from the acidic chyme.

Circular folds

Internally, the mucosal and submucosal tunics of the small intestine are thrown into __________, help increase the surface area through which nutrients can be absorbed. Act like speed bumps to slow sown the movement of chyme and ensure that it remains wit

Large Intestine

__________, also called the large bowel, forms a three-sided perimeter in the abdominal cavity around the centrally located small intestine. From its origin at the ileocecal junction to its termination at the anus. Absorbs most of the water and ions from


The initial or first region of the large intestine is a blind sac called the __________, which is located in the right lower abdominal quadrant. This pouch extends inferiorly from the ileocecal valve.

Vermiform Appendix

Projecting inferiorly from the posteromedial region of the cecum is the __________, a thin, hollow, fingerlike sac lined by lymphocyte-filled lymphatic nodules.

Ascending Colon

The __________ or originates at the ileocecal valve and extends superiorly from the superior edge of the cecum along the right lateral border of the abdominal cavity.

Right Colic Flexure

As it approaches the inferior surface of the liver, the ascending colon makes a 90 degree turn toward the left side of the abdominal cavity. This bend in the colon is called the __________, or the hepatic flexure.

Transverse Colon

The __________ originates at the right colic flexure and curves slightly anteriorly as it projects horizontally across the anterior region of the abdominal cavity.

Transverse Mesocolon

A type of mesentery called the __________ connects the transverse portion of the large intestine to the posterior abdominal wall.

Left Colic flexure

As the transverse colon approaches the spleen in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen, it makes a 90 degree turn inferiorly. The resulting bend in the colon is called the ___________ or the splenic flexure.

Descending Colon

The __________ is retroperitoneal and found along the left side of the abdominal cavity. It originates at the left colic flexure and descends vertically until it terminates at the sigmoid colon.

Sigmoid Colon

The ___________ originates at the sigmoid flexure, where the descending colon curves and turns inferomedially into the pelvic cavity. It is intraperitoneal and has a mesentery called the sigmoid mesocolon. Terminates at the rectum.


The large intestine absorbs most of the water and ions from the remaining digested material. In so doing, the watery material that first enters the large intestine soon solidifies and becomes __________.


The __________ is a muscular tube that readily expands to store accumulated fecal material prior to defecation.

Rectal Valves

Three thick, transverse folds of the rectum called __________, ensure that fecal material is retained during the passing of gas. terminates at the annual canal.

Anal Canal

The terminal few centimeters of the large intestine are called __________. Passes through an opening in the lavatory ani muscles of the pelvic floor and terminates at the anus.

Anal Columns/Sinuses

The internal inning of the anal can contains relatively thin longitudinal ridges, called __________, between which are small depressions termed __________.

Internal/External Anal Sphincters

At the base of the anal canal are the __________, which close off the opening to the anal canal and relax (open) during defecation. Internal is involuntary, whereas the external is voluntary.

Teniae Coli/Haustra

The muscularis of the colon and cecum has two layers of smooth muscle, but the outer longitudinal layer does not completely surround the colon and cecum. These longitudinal smooth muscle fibers form three thin, distinct, longitudinal bundles called ______

Omental Appendices

Hanging off the external surface of the haustra are lobules of fat called __________.

Gastroileal Reflex

Large intestine movements are regulated by local reflexes in the autonomic nervous system. With the ingestion of more food, peristaltic movements in the ileum increase, as does the frequency of the opening of the ileocecal valve. This so called __________

- Peristaltic Movements
- Haustral Churning
- Mass Movement

Three types of movements are typically associated with the passage of digested material through the large intestine:

Peristaltic Movements

__________ of the large intestine are usually weak and sluggish, but otherwise they resemble those that occur in the wall of the small intestine.

Haustral Churning

__________ occurs after a relaxed haustrum fills with digested or fecal material until its distension stimulates reflex contractions in the muscular, causing churning and movement of the material to more distal haustra.

Mass Movement

__________ are powerful, peristaltic like contractions involving the teenier coli that propel fecal material toward the rectum.

Gastrocolic Reflex

Generally, mass movements occur two or three times a day, often during or immediately after a meal. This is the __________.


Two common problems with defecation are __________.

Hepatic Lobules

A connective tissue capsule branches through the liver and forms septa that partition the liver into thousands of small, polyhedral __________, which are the classic structural and functional units of the liver.


Within hepatic lobules are liver cells called __________.

Portal Triads

At the periphery of each lobule are several __________, composed of braces of the hepatic portal vein, the hepatic artery, and the bile duct.

Urinary Bladder

The __________ is an expandable, muscular container the serves as a reservoir for urine.

Median Umbilical Ligament

A fibrous, cordlike __________ extends toward the umbilicus from its origin on the anterosuperior border of the urinary bladder. It is a remnant of the embryologic structure called the arches.

Ureteral Openings

Ureters enter the posterolateral wall of the urinary bladder through the oblique __________.

Neck of Urinary Bladder

The constricted __________ is located inferiorly and connected to the urethra.


A posteroinferior triangular area of the ruinary bladder wall, called the __________, if formed by imaginary lines connecting the two ureteral openings and the urethral opening.

Detrusor Muscle

The muscularis of the bladder wall consists of three layers of smooth muscle, collectively called the __________.

Internal Urethral Sphincter

At the neck of the urinary bladder, an involuntary __________ is formed by the smooth muscle that encircles the urethral opening.


The expulsion of urine from the bladder is called __________.

Micturition Reflex

Micturition is initiated by a complex sequence of events called the __________.


The __________ is a fibromuscular tube that originates at the neck of the urinary bladder and conducts urine to the exterior of the body.

External Urethral Sphincter

The __________ is inferior to the internal urethral sphincter and is formed by skeletal muscle fibers of the urogenital diaphragm. This sphincter is a voluntary sphincter controlled by the somatic nervous system.

Prostatic Urethra

The __________ is the most dilatable portion of the urethra. It extends through the prostate gland, immediately inferior to the male bladder, where multiple small prostatic ducts enter it.

Membranous Urethra

The __________ is the shortest and least dilatable portion of the male urethra. It extends from the inferior surface of the prostate gland through the urogenital diaphragm.

Spongy Urethra

The __________ is the longest part of the male urethra. It is encased within a cylinder of erectile tissue in the penis called the corpus spongiosum.

External Urethral Orifice

The spongy urethra extends to the __________.

Hepatic Portal Veins

The __________ carries blood from the capillary beds of the GI tract, spleen, and pancreas. It brings about 75% of the blood volume to the liver.

Hepatic Artery Proper

The __________, a branch of the celiac trunk, splits into left/right. These arteries carry well oxygenated blood to the liver.


The female and male reproductive systems have obvious differences, and yet they share several general characteristics. Some mature reproductive system structures are derived from common developmental structures (primordia) and serve a common function in a


Both reproductive systems have primary sex organs called __________ - ovaries in females and testes in males.


The gonads (ovaries, testes) produce sex cells called __________ (oocytes, sperm), which unite at fertilization to form a new individual.

Sex Hormones

In addition, the gonads produce large amounts of __________, which affect maturation, development, and changes in the activity of the reproductive system organs.


The __________ is a diamond-shaped area between the thighs in both females and males that is bounded anteriorly by the pubic symphysis, laterally by the ischial tuberosities, and posteriorly by the coccyx.

Urogenital Triangle

The anterior triangle of the perineum, called the __________, contains the clitoris and the urethral and vaginal orifices in females and the base of the penis and the scrotum in males.

Anal Triangle

The posterior triangle, called the __________, is the location of the anus in both sexes. Surrounding the anus is the external anal sphincter.

Vesicouterine Pouch/ Rectouterine pouch

As the female peritoneum foods around the various pelvic organs, it produces two major dead end recesses, or pouches. The __________ forms the space between the urinary bladder and the uterus and the posterior __________ forms the space between the uterus


The __________ are paired, oval organs located within the pelvic cavity lateral to the uterus.


The ovaries are anchored within the pelvic cavity by specific cords and sheets of connective tissue. A double fold of peritoneum, called the __________, attaches to each ovary at its hilum. (Number 2 in the picture)

Broad Ligament

The mesovarium secures each ovary to a __________, which is a drape of peritoneum that hangs over the uterus.

Ovarian Ligament

Each ovary is anchored to the lateral aspect of the uterus by an __________.

Suspensory Ligament

A __________ attaches to the lateral eye of each ovary and projects superolaterally to the pelvic wall.

Germinal Epithelium/Tunica Albuginea

Surrounding the ovary is a thin, simple cuboidal epithelial layer called the __________. Deep to the it is a connective tissue capsule called the __________. (Number 4 in the picture)

Cortex/Medulla of the Ovary

Deep to the tunica albuginea, the ovary can be partitioned into an outer __________ and an inner __________.

Ovarian Follicles

Within the cortex are thousands of __________. (Number 1,2,3,4)

Oocyte/Follicle Cells

Ovarian follicles consist of an __________ surrounded by __________ which support it.

Primordial Follicle

A __________ is the most primitive type of ovarian follicle. Each consists of a primary oocyte surrounded by a single layer of squamous follicle cells. (letter G)

Primary Oocyte

A __________ is an oocyte that is arrested in the first meiotic prophases. About 1.5 million of these types of follicles are present in the ovaries at birth.

Primary Follicle

A __________ forms a maturing primordial follicle. Each consists of a primary oocyte surrounded by a single layer of cuboidal follicular cells, which are now called granolas cells. (Letter H)

Zona Pellucida

A protective structure called the __________ surrounds the oocyte. (primary follicle)

Secondary Follicle

A __________ forms forms from a primary follicle. Each contains a primary oocyte, many layers of granolas cells. (Letter D)

Thecal Cells

Secondary follicle contains a primary oocyte, many layers of granolas cells. Some cells, called __________, derived from connective tissue, develop around the periphery of the ovarian follicle.

Antral Follicle

An __________ forms from a secondary follicle. A fluid filled space called the antrum develops within the granolas cells. (Letter I)

Corona Radiata

Surrounding the primary oocyte in the astral follicle bona pellucid is the __________. Is the innermost layer of granulosa cells.

Mature Follicle

A __________ forms from an astral follicle and contains a secondary oocyte, (surrounded by a zone pellucid and the corona radiate), numerous layers of granulosa cells, and a large, fluid filled, crescent shaped antrum. A secondary oocyte has complete meio

Corpus Luteum

When a mature follicle ruptures and expels its oocyte, the remnants of the follicle remaining in the ovary turn into a yellowish structure called the __________. It secretes the sex hormones progesterone and estrogen. (Number 5,6)

Corpus Albicans

When a corpus luteum regresses (breaks down), it turns into a white, connective tissue scar called the __________. Most are completely resorbed, and only a few may remain within an ovary.


Attached to the inferior surface of the live, a schlock organ called the __________ concentrates bile produced by the liver and stores this concentrate until it is needed for digestion.

Cyctic Duct

The __________ connects the gallbladder to the common bile duct.

Gallbladder Neck/body/Fundus

The gallbladder has three regions: the __________.

Biliary Apparatus

The __________ is a network of thin ducts that carry bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum.

Left/Right Hepatic Ducts

The left and right lobes of the liver drain bile into the __________.
number 1

Common Hepatic Duct

The left and right hepatic ducts merge to form a single __________.
number 6

Cystic Duct

The __________ is attached to the common hepatic duct and carries bile to and from the gallbladder. Allow bile to enter and to leave the gallbladder.
number 2

Common Bile Duct

The union of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct forms the __________ that extends inferiorly to the duodenum.

Hepatopancreatic Ampulla

The __________ is a posteriorly placed swelling in the duodenal wall where the common bile duct and main pancreatic duct merge and pierce the duodenal wall.


The __________ is referred to as a mixed gland because it exhibits both endocrine and exocrine function.

Pancreatic Juice

The pancreas exocrine activity results in the secretion of digestive enzymes and bicarbonate, collectively called __________, into the duodenum.


The pancreas exhibits a wide __________ adjacent to the curvature of the duodenum.


The pancreas central, elongated __________ projecting toward the left lateral abdominal wall.
red bracket


A __________ of a pancreas that tapers as it approaches the spleen.

Acinar Cells

The pancreas contains modified simple cuboidal epithelial cells called __________.
number 1


Acing cells, which are organized into large cluster termed __________, or lobules secrete the mucin and digestive enzymes of the pancreatic juice.
number 2

Main Pancreatic Duct

Most of the pancreatic juice travels through ducts that merge to form the __________, which drains into the major duodenal papilla in the duodenum.

Urinary System

The organs of the __________ are the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.


The kidneys filter waste products from the blood and convert the filtrate into __________.

Urinary Tract

The ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra are collectively known as the __________ because they transport the urine out of the body.

Functions of the Urinary System

- Removing waste product from the blood
- Storage of urine
- Excretion of urine
- Regulation of blood volume
- Regulation of erythrocyte production
- Regulation of ion levels
- Regulation of acid-base balance

Function of Kidneys

Filter blood and process filtrate into tubular fluid,then urine.

Function of Ureters

Transport urine from kidney to urinary bladder via peristalsis.

Function of Urinary Bladder

Reservoir for urine until micturition occurs.

Function of Urethra

Transports urine from urinary bladder to outside of body.

Superior Pole

The __________ of a kidney.

Inferior Pole

The __________ of a kidney.


The kidney has a concave medial border called the __________, where vessels, nerves, and the ureter enter and/or exit the kidney.

Renal Sinus

The hilum is continuous with an internal space within each kidney called the __________. Houses renal arteries, renal veins, lymph vessels, nerves, the real pelvis, renal calyces, and a variable amount of adipose connective tissue.

Each kidney is surrounded and supported by several tissue layers. From innermost to outermost:

- Fibrous capsule
- Perinephric fat
- Reanl fascia
- Paranephrc fat

Renal Cortex

The outer __________ of the kidney.

Renal Medulla

The inner __________ of the kidney

Renal Columns

Extensions of the cortex, called __________, project into the medulla.

Renal Pyramids

Renal columns project into the medulla and subdivide the medulla into __________.

Corticomedullary Junction

The wide base of a renal pyramid lies at the external edge of the medulla where the cortex and media meet, called the __________.

Renal Papilla

The apex (tip) of the renal pyramid, called the __________, projects toward the renal sinus.

Minor Calyx

Each renal papilla projects into a funnel shaped space called the __________.

Major Calyx

Several minor calyces merge to form a larger space called a __________, each kidney typically contains two or three major calyces.

Renal Pelvis

The major calyces merge to form a large, funnel shape __________, which collects urine and transports it into the ureter.

Renal Lobes

A human kidney is divided into 8 to 15 __________. Consists of a medullary pyramid and some cortical substance immediately surrounding the renal pyramid.

Renal Artery

Blood is carried to a kidney in a __________, which generally arises and extends from the lateral region of the descending abdominal aorta at the level of the first or second lumbar vertebra.
letter C

Segmental Arteries

Up to five __________ branch from the renal artery within the renal sinus.

Interlobar Arteries

While still in the renal sinus, the segmental arteries further brach to form the __________.

Arcuate Arteries

Interlobar arteries travel through the renal columns toward the corticomedullary junction, where they branch to form __________.
letter D

Interlobular Arteries

The arcuate arteries project parallel to the base of the medullary pyramid at the corticomedullary junction. Gives off braces called __________.
letter B

Afferent Arteriole

As the interlobular arteries enter the cortex, they extend small braces called __________.
letter B


An afferent arteriole then enters structure called a renal a corpuscle and forms a capillary network called the __________. Some blood plasma is filtered through the fenestrated epithelium into the capsular space within the renal corpuscle.

Efferent Arteriole

Once some of the blood plasma has been filtered, the remaining blood leaves the glomerulus and enters an __________. Is still carrying oxygenated blood because gas and nutrient exchange with cells of the kidney has not yet occurred.
letter A

Peritubular Capillaries

The two capillary networks are responsible for the actual exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste materials within the kidney. __________ are associated with the convoluted tubules and primarily reside in the cortex of the kidney.
letter C

Vasa Recta

The two capillary networks are responsible for the actual exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste materials within the kidney. __________ are associated with the nephron loop and primarily reside in the medulla of the kidney.

Interlobular Veins

The peritubular capillaries and vasa recta then drain into a network of veins. The smallest of these veins are the __________ which travel alongside the interlobular arteries.

Arcuate Veins

Interlobular veins merge to form __________ that project parallel to the base of each medullary pyramid near the corticomedullary junction.

Interlobar Veins

Arcuate veins merge to form __________ that travel through the renal columns from the corticomedullary junction toward the renal sinus.

Renal Vein

Interlobar veins merge in the renal sinus to form the __________. It leave the kidney at its hilum and traverse horizontally to drain into the inferior vena cava.
letter D

Renal Plexus

Each kidney is innervated by a mass of sensory and autonomic nervous system axons collectively called the __________.


The functional filtration unit in the kidney is the __________, which consists of the following components: a renal corpuscle, a proximal convoluted tubule (PCT, a nephron loop, and a distal convoluted tubule (DCT).

Renal Tubule

The proximal PCT, nephron loop, and DCT are collectively known as the __________.

Cortical Nephrons

About 85% of the nephrons are termed __________ because the bulk of the nephron resides solely in the cortex, and their relatively short nephron loops just barely penetrate the medulla.

Juxtamedullary Nephrons

The remaining 15% of the nephrons are called __________, because their renal corpuscles lie close to the corticomedullary junction, and their long nephron loops extend deep into the medulla.

Urine Formation

The nephrons form urine through three interrelated processes:

Glomerular Filtration

__________ is the process by which water and some dissolved solutes in the blood plasma passively move out of the glomerulus into the capsular space of the renal corpuscle due to pressure differences across the filtration membrane. This separated fluid is

Tubular Reabsorption

__________ occurs when substances in the filtrate move by diffusion or active transport across the wall of the renal tubules to return to the blood. Once filtrate begins to modified, it is called tubular fluid. Usually, all needed solutes and most water t

Tubular Fluid

Once filtrate begins to modified, it is called __________. Usually, all needed solutes and most water that formed the filtrate are reabsorbed by the blood. As reabsorption occurs, some excess solutes, water, and waste products remain within it.


The separated fluid from the glomerular filtration is called __________, which is essentially protein free plasma.

Tubular Secretion

__________ is the active transport of solutes out of the blood (within the peritubular capillaries and vasa recta) into the tubular fluid.
dotted arrow

Renal Corpuscle

Produces a filtrate of blood that must be modified as it passes through the convoluted tubules and nephron loop.

Vascular Pole

A __________, where the glomerular afferent and efferent arterioles are found.
left arrow

Tubular Pole

__________, where the proximal convoluted tubule attaches to the renal corpuscle.

Filtration Membrane

The __________ is a porous, and negatively charged structure that is formed by the glomerulus and visceral layer of the glomerular capsule. It is composed of three sandwiched layers. For s substance in the blood to become part of the filtrate, it must be

Endothelium of Glomerulus

The __________ is fenestrated. It allows plasma and its dissolved substances to be filtered, while restricting the passage of large structures, such as the formed elements.
letter A

Basement Membrane of Glomerulus

The __________ restricts the passage of large plasma proteins, while allowing smaller structures to pass through.
letter D

Visceral Layer of Glomerular Capsule

The __________ is composed of specialized cells called podocytes.
letter C


__________ are octopus shaped cells that have long, "foot-like" processes called pedicels that wrap around the glomerular capillaries to support the capillary wall but do not completely ensheathe it.
letter B

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

Reabsorbs ions (especially Na+), nutrients (glucose and amino acids), plasma proteins, vitamins, and water; secretes some H+ ions.

Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)

Secretes H+ and K+ into tubular fluid; reabsorbs Na+ and water from tubular fluid.

Nephron Loop

Reabsorbs water in tubular fluid; also reabsorbs Na+ and C1-; secretes some H+ ions.


The __________ are long, fibromuscular tubes that conduct urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.


The process of oogenesis begins in a female fetus before birth. The ovary contains primordial germ cells called __________, which are diploid cells, meaning they have 23 paris of chromosomes.


During childhood, a female's ovaries are inactive, and no follicles develop. In fact, the main event that occurs during childhood is __________, in which some primordial follicles degenerate.

The Three Phases of the Ovarian Cycle

- Follicular phase
- Ovulation
- Luteal phase

Follicular Phase

The __________ occurs during days 1-13 of an approximate 28 days ovarian cycle. At the beginning of the follicles to mature into primary follicles.


__________ occurs on day 14 of a 28 day ovarian cycle and is defined as the release of the secondary oocyte from a mature follicle.

Luteal Phase

The __________ occurs during days 15-28 of the ovarian cycle, when the remaining granolas cells in the ruptured mature follicle turn into a corpus luteum. It secretes progesterone and estrogen that stabilize and build up the uterine lining, and prepare fo


As the corpus luteum degenerates, its levels of secreted progesterone and estrogen drop, causing the uterine lining to be shed as __________. This event marks the end of the luteal phase.

Uterine Tubes

The __________, also called fallopian tubes or oviducts, extend laterally from both sides of the uterus toward the ovaries. Fertilization of the secondary oocyte occurs in the lateral part of these tubes, and the pre-embryo begins to develop as it travels


The uterine tubes are covered and suspended by the __________, a specific superior part of the broad ligament of the uterus.


The __________ is the free, funnel shaped, lateral margin of the uterine tube.


The infundibulum numerous individual fingerlike folds are called __________. Are not attached to the ovary but enclose it at the time of ovulation.


The __________ is the expanded region medial to the infundibulum. Fertilization of a secondary oocyte typically occurs there.


The __________ extends medially from the ampulla toward the lateral wall of the uterus. It forms about one-third of the length of the uterine tube.

Uterine Part

The __________ extends medially from the isthmus and is continuous with the wall of the uterus.
Number 1


The __________ is a pear shaped, thick walled muscular organ within the pelvic cavity. It has a lumen (internal space) that connects to the uterine tubes superolaterally and to the vagina inferiorly.


Normally, the uterus is angled anterosuperiorly across the superior surface of the urinary bladder, a position referred to as __________.


If the uterus is positioned posterosuperiorly (so that it is projecting toward the rectum), this position is called __________.

Uterus Fundus

The __________ is the broad, curved superior region extending between the lateral attachments of the uterine tubes.

Uterus Body

The __________ is the major part of the uterus, it is the middle region composed of a thick wall of smooth muscle.

Uterus Isthmus

The __________ is a narrow, constricted inferior region of the body that is superior to the cervix.

Uterus Cervix

The __________ is the narrow inferior portion of the uterus that projects into the vagina.

Cervical Canal

Within the cervix is a narrow channel called the __________, which connects to the vagina inferiorly.

Internal Os

The superior opening of the cervical canal is the __________.

External Os

The __________ is the inferior opening of the cervix into the lumen of the vagina.

Round Ligaments

The __________ of the uterus extend from the lateral sides of the uterus, through the inguinal canal and attach to the labia majora.

Transverse Cervical Ligaments