a large estate or ranch in Spanish territory
unjust or cruel due to an abuse of power
one who is under the authority of a king or queen
a fenced or walled-in area containing several residences or other buildings
a store where military personnel can buy equipment and food
a village made up of people who were neither priests nor soldiers
a canal or ditch used for irrigation
the ability to read and write
a Spanish official who served as mayor, sheriff, and judge and ran the town
the local governing body in a Spanish town
a livestock herder or cowhand
the act of becoming free
to join in a secret agreement
In the late 1700s, most of the Texas population was living in what towns?
missions, presidios, pueblos, ranchos
four kinds of frontier settlements established by colonists
To convert native Texans and to teach native Texans to be loyal subjects of the Spanish crown
What were the purposes of missions?
The Spanish government
Who provided funding for the Spanish missions?
The Catholic Church
Who provided the priests for the Spanish missions?
Missions were expected to do this.
El Patronato Real
An agreement between the Spanish government and the Catholic Church regarding the missions
Workshops for spinning and weaving
Name some locations or jobs one may find inside a Spanish mission.
land for crops and livestock
What may one find outside of a mission?
Instruction in the Catholic faith
Work or school
What was daily life in a mission like?
death giving birth
Why did the native population begin to shrink?
Missions were too ____________ to maintain.
to provide military support for missions
to protect the colonists from Native American attacks
What was the purpose of presidios?
Returned any natives who ran away from the mission
Protected groups bringing supplies
Guarded herds of cattle and horses
What jobs did the soldiers at the presidios do?
How many years did a presidio soldier usually serve?
There was constant danger.
Soldiers and priests often did not get along.
There were conflicts over how to deal with the Native Texans.
Soldiers were not paid a great deal.
Why was a presidio soldier's life hard?
uniforms, weapons, and equipment
What did most of a soldiers pay go to purchase?
San Antonio de Bexar
What Spanish towns developed from missions?
Name some jobs that settlers did in Spanish towns.
Singing corridos (ballads)
What leisure activities did people enjoy in the Spanish towns?
_____________ living conditions led to cholera and smallpox.
Muddy streets and standing water served to breed disease-carrying __________________.
There were few ____________, medicines, or medical supplies.
What were ranches called?
Raised cattle, horses, mules, sheep, goats, and hogs
Supplied the towns with wool, animal hides, fat to make soap and candles, and horses
What did ranchos do?
Rounded up cattle
Worked herds from horseback
Drove cattle to market
What were the jobs of the vaqueros?
The heavy taxes imposed by Spain.
Spain stopped supporting the missions.
Why were the colonists unhappy with Spain?
Colonists wanted to make their own ________.
Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Who called for freedom from Spain and revolution?
Father Hidalgo gave a speech called the Grito de Dolores, calling for Mexican citizens to fight for ___________________.
He was executed by Spanish authorities.
What happened to Father Hidalgo?
Led a rebellion.
Declared Texas independent from Spain.
Was captured and executed, ending the rebellion.
What did Juan Bautista de las Casas do?
Republic of Mexico
In 1821, Mexico gained independence from Spain and became the ________________.
Names of rivers, cities, landforms, foods..
Cows, horses, sheep, pigs
Cattle industry, ranching, rodeos, wool
Mexican art, architecture, music, literature
Areas of Spanish influence in Texas