test 4 plants and humans

Genetics is the study of

variation of inherited traits beyond generations


traits in organisms that differ


observable characteristics


units of instruction for producing or influencing traits

gene pair

two genes at the same place on homologous chromosomes


different forms of a gene

dominant allele

allele always expressed in capital letters

recessive allele

allele which is always represented by lower case letter.


the allele combination an organism contains


An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.

monohybrid cross

a cross in which only one characteristic is tracked

Punnett Square

A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross

biological evolution

Changes in the genetic composition of a population through successive generations.


evolutionary change within a species or small group of organisms, especially over a short period.


formation of new species. large changes, one kind evolves into another kind, not observable in nature

natural selection

more offspring produced than can survive so competition occurs.


A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce

selective breeding

the process of selecting organisms with desired traits to be parents of the next generation


Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment

biotolic interaction

interaction among living things

abiotic interactions

interactions between organisms and their nonliving environment

scale of ecology: organismal

consists of physiological and behavioral.

scale of ecology: population


scale of ecology: community

Succession - gradual and continuous change in species composition and community structure over time.
*Primary - succession on a newly exposed site not previously occupied by soil and vegetation
*Secondary - succession on a site that has already supported life, but has undergone a disturbance.

trophic level

each step in a food chain or food web

3 types of biodiversity

genetic, species, ecosystem

human induced causes of extinction


conservation strategies


single species approach to conservation

* indicator species - species whose status confirms the overall health of an ecosystem
* umbrella species - habitat requirement so large that protectinv them also protects other species.
* flagship species - large/instantly recognizable
*keystone species - species within a community that have a large effect in a community Beyond its level of abundance.

restoration ecology

the science that deals with the repair of damaged or disturbed ecosystems


returning Habitat to something similar, but less than full restoration.

captive breeding

breeding of animals and plants to produce stock for release in the wild.