Neurology Test

Mononeuropathy is a disorder

affecting a single nerve

Which of the following terms means pertaining to the brain and spinal cord?

Cerebrospinal

Many congenital neurologic abnormalities can be prevented by the mother taking ________before conception and during early pregnancy.

folic acid

A condition caused by an excessive amount of CSF causing ventricular enlargement is

Hydrocephalus

Identify the glial cell that is only found in the central nervous system.

oligodendrocyte

The root/combining form in the word microangiopathy means

blood vessel

The T in TBI stands for

traumatic

Which of the following words means the body's natural pain reliever?

Endorphin

The color of white matter is the result of:

myelin

Cerebral palsy (CP) is the term used to describe the motor impairment resulting from brain damage in the infant or young child, regardless of the cause or the effect on the child. It is not hereditary. In congenital CP, the cause is often unknown but can

There is a relationship to low levels of oxygen in the brain.

The word cervical means pertaining to the

neck

The proper order of the transmission of a neuron impulse is:

dendrite, cell body, axon, synapse

Which of the following words means a condition involving paralysis of one side of the body?

Hemiplegia

A diagnostic test in which CSF is removed for laboratory testing is called a(n)

lumbar puncture

The congenital condition in which the spinal cord and meninges protrude through a defect in the vertebral arch of one or more vertebrae is

Meningomyelocele

Which of the following words means the sensory experience preceding an epileptic seizure or a migraine headache?

Aura

The word which is derived from the Greek meaning dance, and which refers to involuntary, irregular spasms of limb and facial muscles is

chorea

A group of _______ fibers make up a _______.

neuron; nerve

Which word containing a prefix, root, and suffix refers to a condition involving the chronic, progressive, and irreversible loss of the mind's cognitive and intellectual functions?

Dementia

The root/combining form in the word astrocyte means

star

A tumor of the covering of the brain and spinal cord is called a(n)

meningioma

A synonym for a tonic-clonic seizure is a (n)

grand mal seizure

The word which refers to a loss of motor control and sensation as a result of injury to the spinal cord is

paralysis

Of the following words, which one means pertaining to the skull?

Cranial

Which of the following words means a junction between two nerve cells?

Synapse

Eric complains of sudden, severe pain in his face. The pain is associated with the muscles of chewing. What is the likely diagnosis?

Trigeminal neuralgia

The definition of status epilepticus is

a state of persistent seizures

A disease in which the body makes antibodies against myelin, thereby disrupting nerve conduction is

Guillain-Barr´┐Ż syndrome

Bell palsy is characterized by

paralysis or paresis on one side of the face

The word seizure means

an event due to excessive electrical activity in the brain

The prefix in the word intervertebral means

between

The word which is derived from the Greek meaning deep sleep, trance and means a state of deep unconsciousness is

coma

A disorder of multiple motor and vocal tics is called

Tourette syndrome

61.An accumulation of excess fluid in the extracellular spaces of the brain is called

cerebral edema

Sensory neurons are also known as _______ neurons.

afferent

A disease involving the brain is called a(n)

Encephalopathy

To obtain CSF via a lumbar puncture, which meningeal layers must the needle pass through?

dura mater and arachnoid mater only

A selective mechanism that protects the brain from toxins and infections is abbreviated as the

BBB

A diagnostic test which records the electrical activity in a muscle is a (n)

electromyography

Which of the following words means pertaining to within the subarachnoid or subdural space?

Intrathecal

The root in the word neurotoxin means

poison

Because Jon suffered from an acute seizure, the neurologist ordered a(n):

EEG

The cause of a febrile seizure is a

fever

Which of the following words has a prefix meaning short?

Brachytherapy

The cranial nerve that is a mixed parasympathetic nerve that innervates the abdominal and thoracic viscera.

vagus

A 22 year old patient in the hospital is suffering from a seizure that lasts longer than 45 minutes. When charting this event, the physician should document this seizure as:

status epilepticus

The term which means inability to coordinate muscle activity leading to jerky movements is

ataxia

The word cognition means the process of

acquiring knowledge through thinking, learning, and memory

The root in the word spondylosis means

vertebra

Which cell is involved in the maintenance of the blood brain barrier?

astrocyte

A 25 year old patient with spastic cerebral palsy is now receiving physical therapy after being without it for over one year. The physical therapist attempts to straighten the patient's legs, but is unable to do so. The physical therapist documents the co

contracture

The prefix in the word trigeminal means

three

Parkinson disease occurs when which neurotransmitter is no longer produced?

dopamine

Prions are linked to which of the following diseases?

CJD and BSE

Why does a patient with a stroke on the right side of the brain have paralysis on the left side of the body?

decussation of fibers

The brain and spinal cord make up the

central nervous system

The epidural space is located

above the dura mater

The type of specialist that would correct an AVM:

neurosurgeon

A synonym for Lou Gehrigdisease is

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Of the following words, which one has a word element meaning cobweb or spider?

Arachnoid mater

The proper functioning of this nerve is often assessed by having the patient smile:

VII

A lumbar puncture is performed to:

aspirate cerebrospinal fluid

An inflammation of the brain is called

encephalitis

A blood clot in a cerebral artery that originates elsewhere in the body and causes a stroke is called a (n)

embolism

The word for a groove on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres is a ______________, and its plural is ______________.

sulcus; sulci

Herpes zoster (shingles) is an infection of peripheral nerves arising from a re-activation of the primary childhood viral infection ____________________.

chickenpox

While golfing with her grandson, Mrs. Henderson is accidently struck in the head, just above the ear with a golf club. She arrives to the emergency department complaining of loss of hearing and dizziness. Which cranial nerve is most likely affected?

vestibulocochlear

The word for a web-like network of joined nerves is a ______________, and its plural is ______________.

plexus; plexuses

An abnormal communication between an artery and a vein is abbreviated as a (n)

AVM

You are caring for a patient that has been admitted to the hospital for CVA located in the hypothalamus. Which of the following functions will be affected?

regulation of body temperature

The dura mater is the

hard, fibrous, outer layer of the meninges

Which of the following words means the process of recording the electrical activity of the brain?

Electroencephalography

Abnormal sensations such as tingling, burning, and prickling are called

paresthesia

Mrs. Shapiro suffers from a ganglionic cyst. This means that the cyst is located in:

peripheral nervous system

After the patient suffered a CVA, she was unable to brush her teeth or use a fork or spoon to eat. The physician referred her to an occupational assistant to recommend therapies to address her ______.

ADLs

Which of the following conditions refers to a chronic brain disorder caused by paroxysmal excessive neuronal discharges?

Epilepsy

A adult son brings his elderly father to the emergency department. He reports that is father began slurring his speech. Within an hour of arriving to the emergency department, his symptoms resolve and his speech is now clear. What is most likely the cause

TIA

Due to the patient's chronic mental depression, the physician prescribed a(n) ________ medication.

psychoactive

A thrombolytic agent is abbreviated as a (n)

tPA

An intrathecal injection is placed in the ______ space.

intrathecal

Which of the following words forms the plural by adding "s"?

Paresthesia

The phase immediately following a seizure is known as the

postictal phase

A circumscribed dilation of an artery that can cause a stroke is a (n)

aneurysm

The root in the word endarterectomy means

artery

The cranial nerve that moves the eye is the ______________ nerve.

oculomotor

A congenital condition in which the head is small with small cerebral hemispheres and with moderate to severe motor and mental retardation is

Microcephaly

The C in LOC stands for

consciousness

What does the abbreviation EEG stand for?

electroencephalogram

When analyzing the disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy, the term bovine means:

cattle

The suffix in the word neuralgia means

pain

An inflammation of the coverings of the brain and spinal cord is called

meningitis

The physical therapist notes the patient with cerebral palsy has increased spasticity in the upper limbs. Which statement accurately describes the patient's upper limbs?

The patient's arm muscles are tightly bent, and it is difficult to straighten them.

A disease caused by the immune system producing antibodies that attack the acetylcholine receptors on the muscle cells, causing drooping eyelids, weak eye muscles causing double vision, difficulty talking and swallowing, and muscle weakness in the limbs i

Myasthenia gravis

A tonic-clonic seizure is one in which:

the entire brain is affected.

The right and left cerebral hemispheres are connected by the:

corpus callosum

I am sorry that you were injured in a bicycle accident." This statement is an example of:

sympathy

A collection of blood located outside the dura mater is called a(n)

epidural hematoma

An invasive procedure in which a radiopaque dye is injected into the blood vessels of the neck and brain to detect blood vessels that are partially or completely blocked, aneurysms, or AV malformations is a

cerebral angiography

A short-term, small stroke with symptoms lasting for less than 24 hours is abbreviated as a (n)

TIA

A person who is paralyzed in all four limbs has

Quadriplegia

The congenital condition in which the cerebral hemispheres are absent is

Anencephaly

The adult brain weighs around three pounds. Its size and weight are proportional to body size, not intelligence. Which of the following statements best describes the anatomy of the brain?

The IQ of an individual cannot be predicted from the size of the brain.

The root/combining form in the word syringomyelia means

tube, pipe

Which of the following conditions results from demylenization?

Multiple sclerosis

Acetylcholine, serotonin, and dopamine are examples of

neurotransmitters

The cerebral cortex of the brain is made up of:

gray matter

A synonym for seizure is:

countercoup

An inflammation of the brain and spinal cord is called

encephalomyelitis

Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia. It affects 10% of the population over 65 and 50% of the population over 85. Nerve cells in the areas of the brain associated with memory and cognition are replaced by abnormal clumps and tangles of a

The disease is chronic, progressive, and irreversible.

Encephalopathy and liver damage in children, linked to aspirin use following an acute viral illness is known as

Reye syndrome

A network of nerves that serve the lateral aspect of the labia majora:

lumbosacral plexus

The plural form of the word ganglion is

ganglia

A disease that is transmitted by the bite of an infected deer tick is

Lyme disease

The root/combining form in the word anesthesia means

feeling, sensation