Medical Terminology Ch. 4-5 (Peggy C. Leonard)

ech/o, son/o

sound

electr/o

electricity

fluor/o

emitting or reflecting light

radi/o

radiant energy (sometimes radius)

tom/o

to cut

ultra-

excessive

algesi/o

sensitivity to pain

chem/o

chemical

pharmac/o, pharmaceut/i

drugs or medicine

plast/o

repair

therapeut/o

treatment

tox/o

poison

-therapy

treatment

Muscular System

makes movement possible

Skeletal System

1. Provides protection, form, and shape for the body
2. Stores minerals
3. Forms some blood cells

Cardiovascular System

1. Delivers oxygen, nutrients, and vital substances throughout body
2. Transports cellular waste products to the lungs/kidneys for excretion

Lymphatic System

1. Helps maintain the internal fluid environment
2. Produces some types of blood cells
3. Regulates immunity

Respiratory System

Brings oxygen into the body and removes carbon dioxide and some water waste.

Digestive System

1. Provides the body with water, nutrients, and minerals
2. Removes solid waste

Urinary System

1. Filters blood to remove wastes of cellular metabolism
2. Maintains the electrolyte and fluid balance

Reproductive System

Facilitates procreation (producing offspring)

Integumentary System

1. Provides external covering for protection.
2. Regulates the body temperature and water content.

Nervous System

1. Coordinates the reception of stimuli
2. Transmits messages to stimulate movement

Endocrine System

Secretes hormones and helps regulate body activities

anter/o (anterior)

Towards the front of the body

poster/o (posterior)

Towards the back of the body; behind

ventr/o (ventral)

belly side; anterior

dors/o (dorsal)

back side; posterior

medi/o (medial, median)

Near the middle of the body (toward mid-line)

later/o (lateral)

Near the sides of the body (away from mid-line)

super/o (superior)

uppermost or above

infer/o (inferior)

lowermost or below

proxim/o (proximal)

near the origin or point of attachment

dist/o (distal)

far or distant from the origin or point of attachment

cephal/o (cephalad)

toward the head

caud/o (caudad)

toward the tail or inferior direction in humans

abdomin/o

abdomen

acr/o

extremities (arms and legs)

blephar/o

eyelid

cyst/o

cyst, bladder, or sac

dactyl/o

digit (toes, fingers, or both)

lapar/o

abdominal wall

omphal/o

umbilicus (navel)

onych/o

nail

pelv/i

pelvis

periton/o

peritoneum

som/a, somat/o

body

thorac/o

chest (thorax)

crin/o, -crine

secrete

dacry/o

tear, tearing, crying

lacrim/o

tear, tearing, crying

-emia

condition of the blood

hem/o, hemat/o

blood

hidr/o

sweat or perspiration

hydr/o

water

lymph/o

lymph (lymphatics)

muc/o

mucus

-poiesis

production

-poietin

substance that causes production

py/o

pus

sial/o

saliva (salivary gland)

ur/o

urine (urinary tract)

coagul/o

coagulation

cyt/o

cell

erythr/o

red

hem/a, hemat/o

blood

leuk/o

white

thromb/o

clot (thrombus)

-cyte

cell

-osis

increased or abnormal when describing cellular components

-penia

deficiency