5.3 Digestive: Pathology

peptic ulcer

a sharply circumscribed loss of the mucous membrane of the stomach, duodenum, or any other part of the gastrointestinal system exposed to gastric juices containing acid and pepsin


protrusion of a loop or a knuckle of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening in the muscle wall of the surrounding cavity

gastroesophageal reflux disease

backflow of the contents of the gastrointestinal tract into the esophagus often leading to burning pain in the esophagus and, with repeated episodes, esophagitis or esophageal ulceration

esophageal varices

varicose veins that appear at the lower end of the esophagus as a result of portal hypertension


an impairment of esophageal peristalsis and the lower esophageal sphincter's ability to relax

periodontal disease

pathologic condition of the tissues surrounding the teeth

oral leukoplakia

thick white patches on the oral mucosa produced by hyperkeratosis of the epithelium

herpetic stomatitis

inflammation of the mouth caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV)

dental caries

a plaque disease caused by the interaction of starches, sugars, and other foods with the bacteria that form dental plaque, or any lesion caused by demineralization of a tooth

aphthous stomatitis

a recurring condition characterized by small erosions (ulcers), which appear on the mucous membranes of the mouth


an unpleasant sensation vaguely associated with the abdomen and the epigastrium, that often leads to vomiting


black, tarry stools


a syndrome characterized by a greater-than-normal level of bilirubin in the blood and the deposition of bile pigment in the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera, resulting in a yellow discoloration


passage of bloody stools


air or gas in the intestinal tract, or air or gas expelled through the rectum


the release of air from the stomach through the mouth


difficulty in swallowing


an abnormal liquidity and frequency of fecal discharges


infrequent, incomplete, or delayed bowel movements


lack of appetite


intestinal obstruction


varicose dilations of a vein in the lower rectum or anus caused by congestion in the veins of the hemorrhoidal plexus


an abnormal presence of diverticula, particularly through the muscular portion of the sigmoid colon

crohn disease

a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown origin that usually affects the ileum, colon, or other parts of the gastrointestinal tract


an obstruction in the intestine caused by a twisting and knotting of the bowel

inflammatory bowel disease

ulceration of the lining of the intestine, characterized by bleeding and diarrhea

viral hepatitis

inflammation of the liver caused by a viral infection


chronic degenerative liver disease characterized by fibrous tissue growth on the lobes, degeneration of the parenchyma, and infiltration of the lobules by fats


the presence or development of gallstones

ulcerative colitis

chronic inflammatory ulceration of the colon, primarily affecting the mucosa and the submucosa

irritable bowel syndrome

abnormally increased motility of the intestines, commonly associated with emotional stress


the prolapse of one segment of the intestine into the lumen of another segment