Genetics Ch. 1 Vocabulary

Genetics

the study of inherited traits and their variation; the study of how traits are transmitted

Heredity

the transmission of traits and biological information between generations

Genes

the units of heredity; biochemical instructions that tell cells how to manufacture certain proteins

cells

Basic unit of life

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.

Genome

the complete set of genetic instructions characteristic of an organism, including protein-encoding genes and other DNA sequences

Genomics

comparing and analyzing genomes

Bioethics

the study of ethics that addresses moral issues and controversies that arise in applying medical technology

DNA base pairs

Adenine and Thymine; Cytosine and Guanine

ribonucleic acid (RNA)

A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.

Replication

Copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA

Transcription

Copying DNA into RNA

Translation

Process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced

Exome

Small portion of the genome that codes for proteins

alleles

different versions of a gene

Mutation

the changes in DNA sequence that distinguish alleles; a changed gene

Chromosomes

rod-shaped structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

how many pairs of chromosomes does a human have?

23 pairs, 46 total

Autosomes

Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome; 22 pairs

sex chromosomes

Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual

Karyotype

A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.

Mendelian traits

a trait cause by a single gene

mulifactorial traits

traits that are determine by one or more genes and environmental factors

genetic determinism

the idea that human qualities are genetically determined and cannot be changed by nurture or education

Differentiation

process in which cells become specialized in structure and function

stem cells

unspecialized cells that retain the ability to become a wide variety of specialized cells

Genotype

An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations; underlying instructions; alleles present

Phenotype

the visible trait, biochemical change, or effect on health (alleles expressed).

dominant allele

An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.

recessive allele

An allele that is hidden whenever the dominant allele is present; must be present on both chromosomes of a pair to be expressed

Pedigrees

a chart that shows a trait in a family and how it is inherited

Population

a large collection of alleles, distinguished by their frequencies

gene pool

Combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population

connective tissue

a variety of cell types and materials around them that protect, support, bind to cells, and fill spaces throughout the body; include cartilage, bone, blood, and fat

epithelium tissue

tight cell layers that form linings that protect, serene, absorb, and exercise

muscle tissue

cells that contract, providing movement

nervous tissue

neurons transmit information as electrochemical impulses that coordinate movement and sense and respond to environmental stimuli; neuroglia are cells that support and nourish neurons

gene expression

refers to whether a gene is "turned on" or "turned off" from being transcribed and translated into protein

in exome sequencing, powerful algorithms search for __________.

variants in genes that might explain symptoms of a disease

identify a function of metagenomics studies

revealing how species interact

a disease map which connects diseases that share genes that have altered expression is referred to as __________.

disasome

unlike genealogy, genetics deals with ___________.

inherited traits

identify a characteristic of genes

they tell cells how to manufacture proteins

there are _________ types of building blocks in the sequence of DNA

4 types

the complete set of genetic instructions characteristic of an organism, including protein-encoding genes and other DNA sequences, constitutes a __________.

genome

the field that reveals how closely related we are to each other and to other species is __________.

genomics

unlike heredity, genetics is the study of how ____________.

traits are transmitted

the field of study founded in the 1970s to address moral issues and controversies that arise in applying medical technology is called _________.

bioethics

DNA resembles a spiral stair case wherein the "rails" or backbone, consist of ___________.

alternating chemical groups, namely, sugars and phosphates

the process of __________ copies DNA sequence to RNA molecule.

transcription

the human genome has about 20,325 protein-encoding genes, and these DNA sequences compromise the __________.

exome

true or false: the DNA of a chromosome is discontinuous

false

in the context of numbering the chromosomes in a human somatic cell, autosomes are numbered from ___________.

1-22

the smallest chromosome pair in a(n) __________ can be determine from its karyotype

somatic cell

the traits that are determined by one or more genes and the environment are called __________.

multifactorial traits

A protein-encoding gene may vary slightly in base sequence from person to person. These gene variants are called _________.

alleles

the ongoing effort to understand what individual genes do is termed as __________.

annotation

the idea that the expression of an inherited trait cannot be changed is known as __________.

genetic determinism

all cells except _________ contain the entire genome, but cells differ in appearance and activities because they use only some of their genes

red blood cells

stem cells are important because they ___________.

provide a reserve supply of cells that enable an organ to repair damage

the visible trait, biochemical change, or effect on health in an individual is called the _________.

phenotype

Irene's brother is suffering from color blindness, a trait that is not exhibited by either of their parents. A pictorial source of information that would help her easily determine the pattern of inheritance would be her family's ________.

pedigree chart

in the context of the genetic organization of a population, two different gene pools are distinguished by ________.

the greater frequency of certain alleles

in the context of evolution, the assumption is that the more similar the sequences are between two species, the _______.

more recently did they diverge from a shared ancestor

DNA profiling compares DNA sequences among individuals to _________.

establish or rule out identity

a feature of DNA profiling is that it _________.

can be used to identify victims of natural disasters

a feature of inherited diseases is that ____________.

they result from altered proteins

an interesting feature of diseases is that they __________.

can help identify links between two apparently very different diseases

identify a true statement about genomics

it compares and analyzes genomes of organisms

the "steps" of a DNA double helix hold information because they are ___________.

pairs of four types of bases, abbreviated A, T, G, and C

long DNA molecules wrap around proteins ad wind tightly, forming rod-shaped structures called ___________.

chromosomes

the charts that display the chromosome pairs from largest to smallest, are called _________.

karyotypes

excluding the protein-encoding genes, the rest of the human genome includes DNA sequences that ________.

assist in protein synthesis

comparing DNA sequences for individual genes of different organisms can reveal _________.

how closely related these organisms are

a technique that compares DNA sequences among individuals to establish or rule out identity is called __________.

DNA profiling

which of the following statements about genes is true?

they affect how people respond to particular drugs