HUSH: Ch. 2 - European Colonization of the Americas


Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland

What colonies made up the Southern Colonies?

New York, Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania

What colonies made up the Middle Colonies?

Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island

What colonies made up the New England Colonies?

1. conflict with Natives (payed tribute to Powhatan to keep from being attacked)
2. unrealistic expectations (settlers came to get rich quick)
3. failure of the Virginia Company (risked failure, and had to adapt as a royal colony)

What were the struggles in Jamestown?

The House of Burgesses was established but the Dutch brought the first slaves to the British colony

Why do some people say Democracy was both born and prohibited in the colonies in 1619?

Puritans wished to purify the Anglican Church from Catholicism while remaining loyal to Anglican church; Pilgrims were separatists to the Anglican church

What is the difference between Puritans and Pilgrims?

Jacques Cartier

French explorer who explored modern day Canada

New France

What did Jacques Cartier call Canada?


first French colony

fur trading

What was the major economic activity in France?

John Winthrop

Puritan leader who established the Massachusetts Bay colony; he wished to establish a model Christian society through caring for eachother

Salem Witch Trials

young women accused other colonists of casting spells on them and forced them to engage in strange behavior

Anne Hutchinson

Puritan woman banished from Massachusetts Bay for challenging the male, religious leaders on how they treat women and other minorities

New Amsterdam

Dutch colonial settlement (today known as New York) which served as a major trading center

it's located in the middle of the colonies and is the financial part of the colonies

Why was New Amsterdam the colonial trading center?

no, but they claimed it

Did the Dutch and French conquest and take land?

New Amsterdam

What colonial area was most diverse?

New York

After the British conquered New Amsterdam, what did they rename it to?

proprietary colony

a charter granted by an English Monarch to a group or individual that had full governing rights

William Penn

Quaker that discovered Pennsylvania and belived in religious toleration

Penn's Woods

Pennsylvania translates to


protestant group that believed everyone should be treated equally; considered pacifists because they were friendly to natives; passed the first anti-slavery laws


people who opposed warfare (revolution will be difficult for them) Ex: Quakers


The Quakers do not steal Native land but ___ it

Lord Baltimore

founded Maryland as a safe haven for Catholics

Maryland/Religious Toleration Act

(1649) law passed to protect the growing Christian population in the former Catholic dominated Maryland

Yes; bible passages

Did Maryland allow slavery? If so, how did they justify it?


southern-most colony which served as a buffer from Spain

James Oglethorpe

Founder of Georgia

they sent English debter prisoners there to end their prison sentence

Living in Georgia was very dangerous, so how did they get people to move there?


England's first attempt at a colony off the coast of North Carolina; was UNSUCCESSFUL because of the English have not yet defeated the Spanish armada

they died or left

The British left Roanoke for 3 years, what happened to everyone?

they either were killed by or lived with Croatian Natives

What possible reason is there that the people left Roanoke?


private sailor (circa 1500) who stole in the name of the crown (basically legal theft); they often hoped from nation to nation to get best price


first successful British settlement which acted as a joint-stock company

joint stock company

a private company made of many people who invested to fund a larger thing

to make money

What was the mission of joint stock companies?

conflict with Natives over land, the unrealistic expectation of immediate riches, the swampy location, and poor leadership from John Smith

There were many hardships in Jamestown including ___, ____, ____, and _____

John Smith

leader of Jamestown who ruled with an iron fist; believed "he who does not work will not eat

Starving Time of 1609

Jamestown winter in which many turned to cannibalism

bring over women and plant tobacco

By 1610, Jamestown is dying, but to save it what do they do?

House of Burgesses

first legislature in Jamestown

its the first elected government in British colonies which plants seeds for the modern House of representatives

Why was the House of Burgesses important?


Cash crop in Jamestown, Virginia

John Rolf (Trinidad)

Who brought Tobacco to Jamestown?


With more tobacco came more __ to Jamestown

Indentured servitude

a laborer under contract who could not afford to go to Jamestown, so a wealthy person payed for the journey in exchange for working for the wealthy for about 7 years

the English has a tradition of being a farmer and gaining land, but the Natives share land

Why do the tensions between the Natives and British lead to war?

Bacon Rebellion

uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony lead by Nathaniel Bacon which ended in the plot of the burning of Jamestown

Nathaniel Bacon

a former indentured servant who protests against the English for their surplus of farmland for the wealthy


How did the governor of Jamestown respond to Bacon's proposition?

it's the first revolution against the crown in the new world which plants seeds for the American Revolution

What is the importance of Bacon's rebellion?

Bacon died so everyone else backed out

Why did they never burn Jamestown in Bacon's rebellion?

Plymouth Colony

The second permanent English colony settled by puritans and housed the pilgrims (granted no other religious freedom)

they hated the Church of England

Why did Pilgrims flee England?

Mayflower Compact (1620)

a written set of laws all Pilgrims on the Mayflower had to agree to; served as the first constitution in the New World

they replicated what they learned from the British

Why did the Pilgrims in Plymouth Colony persecute other religions?