TSS Research Quiz 1


Dependent Variable

Aka outcome variable. Potentially influenced by independent variable. It depends on the independent variable. (Factor independent variable: amount of study may impact dependent variable: score on test)

Independent variable

variable researcher studies as a possible cause of a change in something else. This is the variable that the researcher manipulates or changes.


add numbers from smallest to largest and pick the middle one


most frequently occurring number


aka average


a quality or characteristic in research that has two or more possible values

Empirical Association, Nonspurriousness, Time Order

Three necessary criterial for nomothetic causal explanation

Causal Mechanism, Context

Two (not necessary, but convenient) criteria for nomothetic causal explanation

Empirical Association, Time Order, Nonspurriousness, Causal Mechanism, Context

Name all 5 criteria (neccessary and convenient) nomothetic causal explanation

Time Order

Empirical Association, __________, Nonspurriousness, Causal Mechanism, Context

Empirical Association

____________, Time Order, Nonspurriousness, Causal Mechanism, Context


Empirical Association, Time Order, ________, Causal Mechanism, Context

Causal Mechanism

Empirical Association, Time Order, Nonspurriousness, ________, Context


Empirical Association, Time Order, Nonspurriousness, Causal Mechanism, and _________

Cluster Sampling and Stratified Sampling

Two sampling subtypes considered to be Random Sampling

Time order

when variation in the dependent variable occurs after the variation in the independent variable.

Systematic Sampling

data sequentially numbered. Every Nth piece of data is used.


randomization. Reduces the risk of spuriousness y decreasing the likelihood that the treatment group is governed by third variable

Empirical association

The association that occurs when we observe an independent variable changes and the dependent variable also changes.

Non Probability Sampling

Type of Sampling that includes snowball sampling and purposive sampling

Mediating variable

This variable accounts for the relationship between IV and DV. It's presence helps explain why there is an effect between IV and DV

Causal Validity

The accuracy of the assertion that A causes B (homelessness causes poor school performance)

Measurement Validity

Have we measured what we think we measured

Random, Systematic, Stratified, Cluster, Convenience

5 Types of Sampling


Random, Systematic, Stratified, ________, Convenience


________, Systematic, Stratified, Cluster, Convenience


Random, ________, Stratified, Cluster, Convenience


Random, Systematic,________, Cluster, Convenience


Random, Systematic, Stratified, Cluster, ________


______ Sampling is used within Cluster Sampling to choose which clusters data is used from.

Cluster Sampling

In this sampling type, data is divided into groups (usually geographic) and random sampling used to choose which group's data is used.

Internal validity

Causal Validity is also known as ______


_ Focus attention on the subjective dimension of the social world _ Belief that those who study the social world should focus on how individuals perceive the world

Causal mechanism

a mechanism that creates the connection between variation in an independent variable and the variation in the dependent variable.

Convenience sampling

data is chosen based on convenience. Be wary of bias!

Measurement Validity

If people who have the thing test positive for the thing, and people who don't have the thing don't test positive for the thing, the measurement is valid. (Notable when the test only is accurate at testing the thing in certain populations)

Snowball Sampling

early elements (response, participants, etc) lead researcher to more elements.


In ___________ Sampling elements are each chosen for specific reason or purpose

Stratified Sampling

Sampling type where people are divided into sub groups based on characteristics (age, education, etc). and random sampling is used to select participants within groups.

Non Probability Sampling

Type of Sampling that includes snowball sampling and purposive sampling


someone with an amateurish and superficial interest in a topic