political party

A group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct government, and determine public policy


stance on issues


another name for a political party

importance of a political party

embrace different opinions on certain topics

Bill of Rights

First 10 amendments to the Constitution that explains the citizens basic rights and freedoms

1 amendment

Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, and Petition

2 amendment

Right to bear arms

3 amendment

Quartering of soldiers

4 amendment

No unreasonable search and seizure

5 Amendment

double jeopardy, self incrimination, due process

6 Amendment

Right to a speedy and public trial

7 amendment

Right to trial by jury

8 Amendment

No excessive bail, no cruel and unusual punishment

9 amendment

Protects people's rights that are not listed in the Constitution.

10 Amendment

gives rights to the state

Why is it important to make changes to the constitution?

allows the society and country to adopt, change, and grow to further embrace the future.

What is needed to change the constitution? (adding or removing a law)

Both houses propose an amendment with a two-thirds vote, and three-fourths of the state legislatures approve. ps it is hard to change, add, or remove a law

process of a law

A bill starts off by being introduced in either chamber of Congress, a senator, or representative who sponsors it.
The bill is then voted on.
If the bill passes one body of Congress, it goes to the other body to go through a similar process of research, d

Commission hearings

do work within the goverment like:
study issues
hold public hearings to listen to testimonies
consult experts
make recommendations to law makers



what makes a country unique

different history
different culture
different forms of gov
bc the gov a country has reflect it's cultural values and traditions

what government has no leader


what government has one leader

monarchy and dictatorship

what government has few leaders

oligarchy and junta

what government has the people giving them power

democracy (rep and direct)

what happens at a committee hearing

legislatures determine the fate of a bill of law

Federal Government

power separated into the three branches:
Operate on three different levels:
federal (national)

Executive Branch

enforces the laws (President, Vice President, Cabinet)

Legislative Branch

makes the laws, Congress (Senate and the House of Representatives)

Judicial Branch

interprets the laws and decides whether or not they are constitutional (Supreme Court)

Pros of federal government

separates power amongst branches, so no branch gets too much power

Cons of federal government

can take a long time for a legislation to move through the system

federal system

people give the state gov and the national gov power

unitary system

national government gives the state gov power


state government gives the national government power

colonial rule

when a more powerful/wealthily country rules over a smaller/weaker country


a form of government, laws, and rules that are inherited when a smaller country become part of a larger

presidential vs parliamentary

The major difference between these two systems is that in a Presidential system, the executive leader, the President, is directly voted upon by the people (Or via a body elected specifically for the purpose of electing the president, and no other purpose)

Popular Sovereignty

power of the people
the people are the source of the government power
the people give the government permission to do things through voting

consent of the governed

people's permission


instigate or foster; promote growth or developement


a party or a group within the gov that is often self serving


growing with excessive luxuriance; vigorous and tall of growth

majority rule

a party most people rep

john loche

he believed in the natural rights which influenced the bill of rights

Natural Rights

Life, Liberty, and Property


An officeholder who is seeking reelection.

executive agreements

can be made by the president without approval from congress


formal and binding agreement that has to be approved by 2/3 of the congress (treaties end war)


when people vote directly on a issue

public policy

a rule that a community has to follow to fix a problem in their society


government by the people


A government ruled by a few powerful people


a military or political group that rules a country after taking power by force


A government ruled by a king or queen


A form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority.


a state of disorder due to absence or nonrecognition of authority.

the divine theory

God has chosen certain people to rule

Force Theory

Theory that people were forced to submit to an individual's rule; state born of force

Social Contract Theory

A voluntary agreement between the government and the governed

Evolutionary Theory

ruler runs in bloodline