Geography of Greece

1/3 of the land was fertile, mountains created city-states, warm climate, Athens located on coastline-natural harbors; located on Mediterranean Sea(trade)

Positive aspects of Greek Geography

-Location in Mediterranean Sea (trade and climate)
-Warm and arid (encourages people to go outside and get involved)
-Mountains provide defense
- Seafood diet

Negative aspects of Greek Geography

- Mountainous terrain divides Greek city-states
-Little farmable land (limits population)
-Little usable coastline

What did the seas provide for Greece.

seas acted as the rivers in the early river valley civilization provided transportation and protection and trade

What did the rugged Mountains and coastline provide for Greece?

provides protection. Also makes it difficult to create a unified empire. smaller population

Since Greece had little Fertile land, what was the effect of this?

need to become trading cities, small population

Since Greece had Moderate Climate, what was the effect of this?

allowed people to gather in public places to disscuss ideas, and watch plays

Mycenaean Invasions

first to settle in greece 1600 b.c. they were monarchs and lived during the Bronze Age

The Trojan War

War around 1200 b.c. fought over control of trade routes. Early Greeks fight against city of Troy. Controlling waterways and access to the seas. Troy was on the straight which controlled trade. Trojan Horse

The collapse of the Mycenaean Civilization

Dorian people take over, less advanced, starts a Dark Age in Greece until 750 b.c. no written record of events


City-State or a City and the surrounding area has their own government


'high city' with its great marble temples dedicated to different gods and goddesses which stands on top of the hill


Government ruled by ONE king. Control is passed down through family (father-son)


Government ruled by a group of noble families rule an area (royalty)


Government ruled by a group of citizens ruling together; usually get power by military strength or wealth


Powerful ruler who had the power of the poor and artisans. They were not evil people, but someone who rose to power with the power of the population. As they tried to maintain power, they began to give it away to the people, eventually moving to a democra

Direct Democracy

Rule by the citizens. Majority rules.

Similarities between Athens and Sparta

in Greece, city-state, religion, city councils, language, myths, slaves

Differences between Athens and Sparta

Sparta: 2 kings, focused on military training, all males were soldiers, Woman had more freedom, harsh treatment, people could not travel, killed weak babies
Athens: focused on education, men had different jobs, women stayed home, Parthenon-eight temple wi


A Direct Democracy, open society, international trade, arts, participated in the Olympics, philosophy, want to expand cultural influence


Leader of Athens during its Golden Age


No individuality, Stresses Military strength, at the age of 7 all boys went to the military, city was isolated, land-locked. No interest in the arts. Oligarchy.

Draco's code

First written code of law in ancient Greece


Slaves from Sparta. Did everything other than military. Almost succeeded in beating the military.

Persian Wars

Greek city-states vs. Persia. All Greek city-states joined together to fight Persia.

After the Persian War how did Greece view Persia?

Persia was essentially broken as a threat to Europe, allowing the flowering of the Greek period. Basically it marked the beginnings of a European tradition that was distinct from Asia and would constitute the beginnings of "Western Civilization

Causes of Persian War

Ionian Greeks were attacked by Persia. Persians do not fear the Greek city-states because they do not think the Greeks will join together. Want to expand their empire.

Effects of Persian War

Greek city-states win the war. Athens becomes the leader in Greece. Begins the Golden Age of Athens. It stops Persian expansion into Europe. Led to the Peloponnesian War.

Golden Age of Athen/Pericles 3 main goals for Athens

l. Improves Democracy. Paid positions available in government
2. Increase the Navy. Make themselves the most powerful navy and protect the seas
3. Beautify Athens. Spent a lot of money on arts and sculptures

Delian League

Cities joined together through economy and military in Athens

Peloponnesian League

Sparta wants to prevent Athens from gaining too much power

Peloponnesian War

Fought between Sparta and Athens. Sparta thought Athens was getting too powerful! Sparta won the war.

Effects of Peloponnesian War

Both city-states were weakened by the battle; allowing Macedonia to rise up and take over all of Greece


Plato, Aristotle, Socrates; Tried to understand the rules of nature and to question things and search for answers. "An unexamined life is not worth living


North of Greece, not as advanced, mostly farmers and goat herders, connection to the Greek culture

Philip II

King of Macedonia. Organized Macedonia into a military force. His vision is to turn Macedonia into a military force and take over Greece. Unified the Greek city-states

Alexander the Great-Childhood

King Philip's son. Lead General in his father's army. At 18, helped conquer Greece. Became King when his father was killed.

Alexander the Great-ChildhoodRise to power

Taught by Aristotle, Mother told him he was the son of Zeus

Alexander the Great-Rise to power

King at the age of 20, Led his troops into Persia

Alexander the Great- Battles with the Persians

His soldiers were out-numbered, yet still beat the Persian Army. He didn't want to stop until Darius III was dead.

Alexander the Great- Conquering Egypt

Egyptians greet him as a liberator. He is crowned pharaoh and builds the city of Alexandria at the mouth of the Nile (this did not help his ego)

Alexander the Great- Crossing Indus River (India)

(went beyond the known world) Defeats an Indian army (which includes elephants) and claims the Indus River Valley. Though he wishes to continue East, his soldiers are tired from marching 11,000 miles in 11 years. Returns to Babylon to begin the process of

Effects of Alexander's conquest

Massive cultural diffusion. India, Persia, Egypt and Greece

What happened when Alexander died

His last words- to pick a strong leader. No one was strong enough so they divided the land so 3 men ruled a certain section

Hellenistic Culture




Achievements during the Hellenistic Period-Science and Technology


Achievements during the Hellenistic Period- Mathematics and Physics

mathematics: Pythagoras derived a formula to calculate the relationship between the sides of a right triangle. Euclid wrote The Elements textbook that became the basis for modern geometry. physics: Archimedes applied principles of physics to make practica

Achievements during the Hellenistic Period-Philosophy and Art


Achievements during the Hellenistic Period-Colossus of Rhodes


Darius III

his great great grandfather is a Persian leader. He is the emperor of the Persian empire. Killed by his own people.

Who were the 3 men, who ruled after Alexander died?

-Antilogous becomes king of Macedonia and Greece
-Ptolemy takes over the Pharaoh position in Egypt
-Seleucids takes over the remains of the Persian Empire

How was the government set up after Alexander died?

Abandoning the traditional democracy of Greece, each general sets up a Dynastic Rule