Chapter 14 Blood

� Describe the components of blood.

plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

� Compare the formed elements of the blood.

RBCs, WBCs, and platelets all act together to maintain life

� What are normal levels and percentages of RBC?

RBCs, WBCs, and platelets all act together to maintain life. RBCs transport oxygen to the body's tissues, WBCs fight infections in the body, and platelets clot wounds that occur.

� How is the shape of a red blood cell important to its function?

The biconcave shape of the cell allows oxygen exchange at a constant rate over the largest possible area.

What is hematocrit?

is a measurement of the size and number of red blood cells that someone has

Monocytes

They have a longer lifespan than many white blood cells and help to break down bacteria.

Serum

is the liquid that remains after the blood has clotted

How are platelets involved in hemostasis?

the process of stopping bleeding at the site of interrupted endothelium. They gather at the site and, unless the interruption is physically too large, they plug the hole. First, platelets attach to substances outside the interrupted endothelium: adhesion.

Describe the steps in clot formation.

vascular spasm, the formation of a platelet plug, and coagulation, in which clotting factors promote the formation of a fibrin clot. Fibrinolysis is the process in which a clot is degraded in a healing vessel

What happens if clots form within blood vessels?

they can obstruct blood flow, a condition called thrombosis. That could mean trouble. If a clot in an artery breaks free and travels through the circulatory system, it can cause blockages affecting the heart, lungs, and other organs�potentially shutting t

What is edema?

known as brain swelling. It's a life-threatening condition that causes fluid to develop in the brain. This fluid increases the pressure inside of the skull � more commonly referred to as intracranial pressure (ICP).

What blood types can give/receive to/from other blood types?

O+ give= O+A+B+AB+
receive O+ O-
A+ give= A+ AB+
receive= A+ A- O+ O-
B+ give= B+ AB+
receive= B+ B- O+ O-
O- give= AB+ ONLY
receive= A- O-
A- give= A- A+ AB- AB+
receive= A- O-
B- give= B- B+ B- AB+
receive= B- O-
AB- give= AB- AB+
receive= AB- A- B- O-

What antigens can be found on RBC?

single-pass proteins
multi-pass proteins
and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked proteins.

� How does the Rh factor affect a developing fetus and its mother?

If the mother is Rh-negative, her immune system treats Rh-positive fetal cells as if they were a foreign substance. The mother's body makes antibodies against the fetal blood cells. These antibodies may cross back through the placenta into the developing

What is plasma

is the largest part of your blood. ... Plasma carries water, salts and enzymes. The main role of plasma is to take nutrients, hormones, and proteins to the parts of the body that need it

What are red blood cells

contain a special protein called hemoglobin, which helps carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and then returns carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs so it can be exhaled

What are white blood cells

are part of the immune system. They help your body fight off infections and other diseases. When you get sick, your body makes more white blood cells to fight the bacteria, viruses, or other foreign substances causing your illness.

What are platelets

are colorless blood cells that help blood clot

Lymphocytes

They create antibodies to fight against bacteria, viruses, and other potentially harmful invaders.

Neutrophils

They kill and digest bacteria and fungi. They are the most numerous type of white blood cell and your first line of defense when infection strikes

Basophils

These small cells seem to sound an alarm when infectious agents invade your blood. They secrete chemicals such as histamine, a marker of allergic disease, that help control the body's immune response.

Eosinophils

They attack and kill parasites and cancer cells, and help with allergic responses.

Plasma

is the liquid that remains when clotting is prevented with the addition of an anticoagulant.

What antibodies can be found in the plasma?

Anti A and Anti B

How do these create different blood types?

The immune system forms antibodies against whichever ABO blood group antigens are not found on the individual's RBCs. Thus, a group A individual will have anti-B antibodies and a group B individual will have anti-A antibodies