374 Exam 3

Climate Justice

is a term used for framing global warming as an ethical and political issue, rather than is purely environmental or physical in nature

just transition

a framework that has been developed by the trade union movement to encompass a range of social interventions needed to secure workers' jobs and livelihoods when economies are shifting to sustainable production, including avoiding climate change, protectin


Focuses on the enduring narrative of land improvement and dispossession in England, America, and Palestine/Israel. The book uses a model describing the transfer of land from one group to another and the resulting physical transformation of landscapes. Boo

Indigenous movements

Legislative maneuvers to replace Columbus Day with Indigenous People's Day with the purpose of recognizing and celebrating the original human communities on this continent


Often used in discussions concerning Native American groups and other marginalized communities, sovereignty is basically having the power/authority to make decisions, to make choices and have those decisions/choices be upheld. With regards to food, see be

Chaco Canyon

New Mexico- ancestral Native American Puebloan village erected roughly 1,000 years ago. Ancient urban ceremonial centre that is in danger of being destroyed by drilling and other work to accelerate oil and gas development. Drilling will destroy artifacts


committed for the purpose of establishing and maintaining domination by one racial group of persons over any other racial group.
-International Convention on the suppression and punishment of the crime of apartheid, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1

Food Sovereignty

is the right of peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and their right to define their own food and agriculture systems.

just recovery

Relief package for Puerto Rico contains $5 billion in loans for the island, rather than grants, even though the they are already suffering from being billions in debt. Shock doctrine phenomenon-fear is that however much islanders are suffering in the mids

food deserts:

Food deserts are areas in which there is limited or no access to fresh, affordable, healthy food--think of Native American reservations where there's only one grocery store with overpriced food to service the whole reservation

Food Justice

Covers a very wide range of issues. Basically, think of that giant list of food issues we came up with in class--food justice is an attempt to fix those issues and guarantee appropriate, affordable access to food and ability to grow/procure food as needed

First foods

First foods is a term that refers to the foods traditionally grown and eaten by Native American tribes. Often access to these foods has been limited or challenged due to climate change, governmental restrictions, and so on

critical environmental justice studies:

From the Pellow reading, this is a proposed new phase of EJ studies, with four main tenets of 1. A focus on intersectionality 2. An emphasis on multi-scalar views rather than focusing only on local or national stakes/issues/influences 3. A recognition of

first" and "second" generation environmental justice:


First" generation

First Generation? focused primarily on documenting environmental inequalities through the lens of race and class.

Second generation

Second Generation? studies that extend beyond questions of distribution to incorporate a deeper consideration of theory and the ways that gender, sexuality, and other categories of difference shape EJ struggles.

Black Lives Matter:

Black Lives Matter (BLM) is a social movement centered on the problem of state- sanctioned racist violence


a concept intended to explain the ways that many identities and social categories work together to produce advantages and disadvantages across bodies and space, and that inequalities do not independently of one another.


The Tohono O'odham are a Native American Nation whose reservation is located in southern Arizona and northern Mexico. Because the border crosses their land, they have faced many problems in recent decades as border security has become more stringent and m

gentrification and displacement:

Gentrification is a phenomenon in which outsiders begin moving into and/or buying property in a community, ultimately resulting in the displacement of previous residents and a change to local culture. G can be a series of slow, individual choices or steps

Detroit Gentrification

Gentrification here operates in 2 separate, concurrent processes: the rich, mostly white newcomers to the city and their allies in business get accolades from the press, the government's attention , and the financial backing of Detroit's nonprofit sector

San Francisco Gentrification

The Mission is San Francisco's main Latino neighborhood that has been a target of gentrification due to attempts at urban renewal. Many buyout offers (landlord offers money for families to leave their homes to be able to bring in more wealthy, white peopl

climate gentrification:

Gentrification that occurs as a result of the threat of climate change; Miami is a strong example of this as affluent people's beach houses are being threatened by rising sea levels, causing those people to move to neighborhoods that are poorer/further in


A left-wing revolutionary group based in Chiapas, Mexico (abbreviated as EZLN); after a failed uprising in 1994, the Zapatistas went to Chiapas and began forming their own communities that practice horizontal governmental structures and generally work to

Sacred sites:

sacred sites are geographical locations and topographical features that are considered sacred in the religions of indigenous peoples; for example, Mauna Kea, a dormant volcano in Hawaii, is a sacred site to many Native Hawaiians, and plans to construct a

How does Miller argue that climate change and border militarization are connected?

Relates to Disaster Capitalism - As natural disasters occur (flooding, storm surges, etc. due to climate change), numbers of refugees rise. More and more people try to leave affected country.
-Climate change = More refugees = increase in border security/

Compare and contrast enclosure in England, North America, and Palestine.



Enclosure is referring to dominant/powerful groups justify their way to seizing land in efforts to "modernize" patterns of development. The modernizing often times excludes and displaces.

-Early modern England:

Back then, To seek "modernity" was to own land, and to improve the land. The areas that were not improved were considered 'waste.' The land-owning improver would exclude anyone who could not afford to improve their own land (peasants, farmers). Discourse

-North America

Like England, North Am colonies saw the unimproved Amerindian land as waste, unimproved, and unoccupied. In a colonial context, the land was seen as it was not utilized, worked on, or inhabited properly. This gave the colonials the justification that whoe


Enclosing Palestine originated from the idea of creating a Jewish state homeland and most importantly that it was previously said that the state was underdeveloped. Elites used these as justifications to redevelop, and created a imaginatory geography that

What are the environmental impacts of border walls, with specific reference to the U.S-Mexico border barriers?

Climate Change report finds that the countries that have historically polluted the environment will be less negatively affected by climate change. The report identifies Sub-Saharan Africa and small island states, like Antigua and Barbuda, as the most vuln

Why would communities organize around food sovereignty or food justice? What forms can this take? How does biopiracy link to ethnobotany and community health?

In my recent scholarship and teaching, I am using literature to enhance understanding of why indigenous peoples around the world are advocating for a rights and culturally based approach to food. In the classroom, this focus can help students understand w

What would a "just recovery" look like in Puerto Rico

Shock Doctrine"
Rather than build Puerto Rico back up with massive development projects by outsider investors and developers, build Puerto Rico back up into something that will benefit the residents.
Design a bold and holistic plan for the island to be re

What are the four pillars of Critical EJ studies, and how can these help us to understand Black Lives Matter as an EJ movement?

Four Pillars
Intersectionality and the Racial Discourse of Animality
Scale, Race, and Difference
An anti-statist/anarchist reading of BLM

What are the guiding principles of the Zapatistas (there are seven)? Be able to explain the meaning of each.


Why and where did the Zapatistas arise? What is their role in global social justice movements?

A Mexican indigenous armed revolutionary group based in the jungle and mountains of Chiapas. Zapatista uprising is a part of a long history of struggle and resistance and resulted from the high levels of poverty and lack of healthcare and education that p