Chapter 16 Lymphatic System and Immunity

What is the function of lymph?

Protects your body against foreign invaders
It produces and releases lymphocytes (white blood cells) and other immune cells that monitor and then destroy the foreign invaders � such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi � that enter the body

Describe a lymphatic vessel

Walls that are thinner than veins. They have three layers; an endothelial lining, smooth muscle, connective tissue. They contain semilunar valves. The larger vessels lead to lymph nodes and then to larger lymphatic trunks.

Describe the pathway of lymph

A thin tube that carries lymph (lymphatic fluid) and white blood cells through the lymphatic system. Also called lymphatic vessel

Where can lymph nodes be found in the body and what is the structure of a lymph node?

Lymph nodes are located throughout your body, including your neck, armpits, groin, around your gut, and between your lungs. Lymph nodes drain lymph fluid from nearby organs or areas of your body
Lymph nodes are kidney or oval shaped and range in size from

What types of cells provide our immunity?

T-cells, B-cells and NK cells, neutrophils, and monocytes/macrophages

Compare an antigen to an antibody.

Antigen-a toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
Antibody-a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with sub

Describe the thymus and its role in immunity.

The thymus is an organ that is critically important to the immune system which serves as the body's defense mechanism providing surveillance and protection against diverse pathogens, tumors, antigens and mediators of tissue damage.

Describe the different glands associated with the lymphatic system. What are their functions?

Lymph nodes: filter forein particles and debris from lymph, house lymphocytes that destroy foreign particles in lymph; house macrophages that engulf and destroy foreign particles and cellular debris. Thymus: Houses lymphocytes, differentiates thymocytes i

How does stress affect immunity?

the immune system's ability to fight off antigens is reduced. That is why we are more susceptible to infections. The stress hormone corticosteroid can suppress the effectiveness of the immune system

Compare and contrast primary versus secondary immune responses.

Primary Immune Response is the reaction of the immune system when it contacts an antigen for the first time. Secondary Immune Response is the reaction of the immune system when it contacts an antigen for the second and subsequent times.

What is interferon? Complement?

Complement: Cause inflammation, promote phagocytosis, and lyse bacteria
Interferon: Promotes anti-viral activity in nearby cells, thus protecting, but does not save infected cells

What are macrophages and what is their role in immunity?

Macrophages are effector cells of the innate immune system that phagocytose bacteria and secrete both pro-inflammatory and antimicrobial mediators. In addition, macrophages play an important role in eliminating diseased and damaged cells through their pro

� Compare and contrast innate barriers versus adaptive immunity.

The innate immune response is activated by chemical properties of the antigen.
The adaptive immune response is more complex than the innate. ... Adaptive immunity also includes a "memory" that makes future responses against a specific antigen more efficie

Describe differences between T cells and B cells.

An important difference between T-cells and B-cells is that B-cells can connect to antigens right on the surface of the invading virus or bacteria. This is different from T-cells, which can only connect to virus antigens on the outside of infected cells

How does an autoimmune disease work?

the immune system mistakes part of your body, like your joints or skin, as foreign. It releases proteins called autoantibodies that attack healthy cells. Some autoimmune diseases target only one organ. Type 1 diabetes damages the pancreas.

� Compare and contrast passive versus active immunity.



Immunoglobulin A (IgA), which is found in high concentrations in the mucous membranes, particularly those lining the respiratory passages and gastrointestinal tract, as well as in saliva and tears.

What is tissue rejection and how is it reduced through clinical practices/treatments?

Failure of transplantation that occurs when an organism recognizes transplanted tissue as foreign, and mounts an immune response.


A type of white blood cell that is of key importance to the immune system and is at the core of adaptive immunity, the system that tailors the body's immune response to specific pathogens. The T cells are like soldiers who search out and destroy the targe


They function in the humoral immunity component of the adaptive immune system by secreting antibodies.

NK cells

are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system. The role of NK cells is analogous to that of cytotoxic T cells in the vertebrate adaptive immune response.


re a type of white blood cell (WBC or granulocyte) that protect us from infections, among other functions. They make up approximately 40% to 60% of the white blood cells in our bodies,1 and are the first cells to arrive on the scene when we experience a b


a large phagocytic cell found in stationary form in the tissues or as a mobile white blood cell, especially at sites of infection.


Immunoglobulin G (IgG), the most abundant type of antibody, is found in all body fluids and protects against bacterial and viral infections.


Immunoglobulin M (IgM), which is found mainly in the blood and lymph fluid, is the first antibody to be made by the body to fight a new infection.


Immunoglobulin E (IgE), which is associated mainly with allergic reactions (when the immune system overreacts to environmental antigens such as pollen or pet dander). It is found in the lungs, skin, and mucous membranes.


Immunoglobulin D (IgD), which exists in small amounts in the blood, is the least understood antibody.