7001 mid-term


A central concept in Piaget's theory is that of the ______, defined as internalized representations of the world or ingrained and systematic patterns of thought, action, and problem solving

social learning or direct learning

Our schema develop through _____ learning (watching and absorbing the experiences of others) or ______ learning (our own experiences).


responding to experiences based on existing schema


changing schema when new situations cannot be incorporated within an existing one


As children, we are motivated to develop schema as a means of maintaining psychological equilibrium, or balance. Any experience that we cannot _____ creates anxiety, but if our schema are adjusted to _______ the new experience, the desired state of equili


Another of Piaget's central ideas is that cognitive development unfolds ______

Cognitive operations

Piaget's Cognitive development theory: To use abstract thoughts and ideas that are not tied to situational sensory and motor information.

Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years)

Piaget's Cognitive development theory: The infant is egocentric; he or she gradually learns to coordinate sensory and motor activities and develops a beginning sense of objects existing apart from the self.

Preoperational stage (2 to 7 years)

Piaget's Cognitive development theory: The child remains primarily egocentric but discovers rules (regularities) that can be applied to new incoming information. The child tends to overgeneralize rules, however, and thus makes many cognitive errors.

Concrete operations stage (7 to 11 years)

Piaget's Cognitive development theory: The child can solve concrete problems through the application of logical problem solving strategies.

Formal operations stage (11 to adulthood)

Piaget's Cognitive development theory: The person becomes able to solve real and hypothetical problems using abstract concepts.


Piaget's sees the mind as playing an _____ role in processing�not merely recording but actually ______ the nature of the input it receives

cognitive deficits
cognitive distortions

From the perspective of cognitive theory, the sources of our problems may involve accurate assessments of the ______ (for which problem-solving interventions may be provided), cognitive _______ (lacking information about a situation) or cognitive _______

Absolute thinking

Defense mechanism: Viewing experiences as all good or all bad and failing to understand that experiences can be a mixture of both


Defense mechanisms : Assuming that deficiencies in one area of life necessarily imply deficiencies in other areas

Selective abstraction

Defense mechanism: Focusing only on the negative aspects of a situation and consequently overlooking its positive aspects

Arbitrary inference

Defense mechanism: Reaching a negative conclusion about a situation with insufficient evidence


Defense mechanism: Creating large problems out of small ones


Defense mechanism: Making large problems small and thus not dealing adequately with them


Defense mechanism: Accepting blame for negative events without sufficient evidence

Defense mechanisms

unconscious, automatic responses that enable us to minimize perceived threats or keep them out of our awareness entirely

Acting out

Direct expression of impulses to avoid tension that would result from their postponement. An adolescent steals money from her mother to buy alcohol and gets into constant arguments with her older sister who tries to monitor her behavior.


Defense mechanism: Negating an important aspect of reality that one may actually perceive. A woman with anorexia acknowledges her actual weight and strict dieting practices but firmly believes she is maintaining good selfcare by dieting.


Defense mechanism: Attributing unacceptable thoughts and feelings to others. A man does not want to be angry with his girlfriend, so when he is upset with her, he avoids owning that emotion by assuming she is angry at him.


Defense mechanism: Resuming behaviors associated with an earlier developmental stage or level of functioning in order to avoid present anxiety. The behavior may or may not help to resolve the anxiety. A young man throws a temper tantrum as a means of disc


Defense mechanism: The tendency to see the good and bad aspects of the self or others as separate; to see the self and others as alternately "all good" or "all bad." A primary school child "hates" his teacher when reprimanded and "loves" his teacher for p


Defense mechanism: Shifting feelings about one person or situation onto another. A student's anger at her professor, who is threatening as an authority figure, is transposed into anger at her boyfriend, a safer target.


Defense mechanism: Avoiding unacceptable emotions by thinking or talking about them rather than experiencing them directly. A person talks to her counselor about the fact that she is sad but shows no emotional evidence of sadness, which makes it harder fo

Isolation of affect

Defense mechanism: Consciously experiencing an emotion in a "safe" context rather than the threatening context in which it was first unconsciously experienced. A person does not experience sadness at the funeral of a family member but the following week w


Defense mechanism: Using convincing reasons to justify ideas, feelings, or actions so as to avoid recognizing true motives. A student copes with the guilt normally associated with cheating on an exam by reasoning that he was too ill the previous week to p

Reaction formation

Defense mechanism: Replacing an unwanted unconscious impulse with its opposite in conscious behavior. A person cannot bear to be angry with his boss, so after a conflict he convinces himself that the boss is worthy of loyalty and demonstrates this by volu


Defense mechanism: Keeping unwanted thoughts and feelings entirely out of awareness. son may begin to generate an impulse of hatred for his father, but because the impulse would be consciously unacceptable, he ____ the hatred and does not become aware of


Defense mechanism: Converting intolerable impulses into somatic symptoms. A person who is unable to express his negative emotions develops frequent stomachaches as a result


Defense mechanism: Nullifying an undesired impulse with an act of reparation. A man who feels guilty about having lustful thoughts about a coworker tries to make amends to his wife by purchasing a special gift for her


Defense mechanism: Converting an impulse from a socially unacceptable aim to a socially acceptable one. An angry, aggressive young man becomes a star on his school's debate team.


Defense mechanism: The expression of painful or socially unacceptable feelings without discomforting the person who is being humorous or (often) the recipient. An employee manages her discomfort at being in a supervisory meeting by making self-deprecating

preconventional morality

Kohlberg moral development:
The first two stages represent ______ _______ in which the child's primary motivation is to avoid immediate punishment and receive immediate rewards.

Conventional morality

Kohlberg moral development:
______ _______ emphasizes adherence to social rules.

postconventional morality

Kohlberg moral development:
Many people never move beyond conventional morality to _______ _________, which is characterized by a concern with moral principles transcending those of their own society.


One limitation of Kohlberg's theory is that it does not take into account ______ differences

Heteronomous morality

Kohlberg moral development: Preconventional level:
Stage 1: _____ ______: Accepting what the world says is right

Instrumental purpose

Kohlberg moral development: Preconventional level:
Stage 2: ______ _______: Defining the good as whatever is agreeable to the self and those in the immediate environment

Interpersonal experiences

Kohlberg moral development: Conventional level:
Stage 3: _____ _______: Seeking conformity and consistency in moral action with significant others

The societal point of view

Kohlberg moral development: Conventional level:
Stage 4: _____ _____ ___ ___ ___: Seeking conformity and consistency with what one perceives to be the opinions of the larger community


Kohlberg moral development: Postconventional level
Stage 5: _____: Observing individual and group (societal) rights

Conscience and logic

Kohlberg moral development: Postconventional level:
Stage 6: ______ and _____: Seeking to apply universal principles of right and wrong

social constructionist perspective

focuses on how people construct meaning, a sense of self, and a social world through their interactions with each other. They learn, through their interactions, to classify the world and their place in it. Social interaction is grounded in language custom

social constructionist

To the ______ ______, there is no singular objective reality, no true reality that exists "out there" in the world. There are, instead, multiple realities based on the shared subjective realities created as people interact in different contexts.

social constructionist

The _______ ________ perspective sees human understanding, or human consciousness, as both the product and the driving force of social interaction. ______ ______ see the self as developing from the interpretation of social interaction

looking-glass self

Social constructionist theory:
Cooley introduces the concept of the ____ ____ _____, which can be explained as "I am what I think you think I am." The ____ _____ ______ has three components: (1) I imagine how I appear to others, (2) I imagine their judgme

Psychodynamic theory

Emotions have a central place in human behavior. Unconscious, as well as conscious, mental activity serves as the motivating force in human behavior. Early childhood experiences are central in the patterning of an individual's emotions and, therefore, cen


_________proposed an epigenetic model of human development, in which the psychological unfolding of personality takes place in sequences influenced by biological, psychological, and social forces.

Stage 1 (birth to 1 year):

Erickson psychosocial development theory :
Stage _ ( ) : basic trust versus mistrust

Stage 2 (ages 2 to 3):

Erickson psychosocial development theory:
Stage _ ( ) : autonomy versus shame, doubt

Stage 3 (ages 3 to 5)

Erickson psychosocial development theory:
Stage _ ( ) : : initiative versus guilt

Stage 4 (ages 6 to 12)

Erickson psychosocial development theory:
Stage _ ( ) : industry versus inferiority

Stage 5 (ages 12 to 18 or so)

Erickson's psychosocial development theory:
Stage _ ( ) : identity versus role confusion

Stage 6 (early to late 20s)

Erickson psychosocial development theory:
Stage _ ( ) : intimacy versus isolation

Stage 7 (late 20s to 50s):

Erickson psychosocial development theory:
Stage _ ( ) : generativity versus stagnation

Stage 8 (late adulthood)

Erickson psychosocial development theory:
Stage _ ( ) : integrity versus despair

ecological systems theory

focuses on the relationships and interactions between living organisms and their environments. Interdependence and mutual influence are emphasized. The environment exerts influence on an individual, family, or social group, but individuals, families, and

ecological systems

Social workers who promoted the _____ ______ called for a holistic view of practice situations that considers the multiple environmental influences involved. The _____ perspective extended general systems theory by considering the important role of physic

a hierarchy of needs,

Maslow developed a theory of a ______ _____ _____, which suggests that higher needs cannot emerge in full motivational force until lower needs have been at least partially satisfied. ______ needs are at the bottom of the hierarchy, and the need for ______

1. Physiological

Maslow Hierarchy of needs:
1. ______ needs: hunger, thirst, sex

2. Safety

Maslow Hierarchy of needs:
2. ______ needs: avoidance of pain and anxiety; desire for security

3. Belongingness and love

Maslow Hierarchy of needs:
3. _______ & ______ needs: affection, intimacy

4.Esteem needs

Maslow's Hierarchy of needs:
4. _____ _____: self-respect, adequacy, mastery

5. Self-actualization:

Maslow Hierarchy of needs:
5. _____-_______: to be fully what one can be; altruism, beauty, creativity, justice

positive psychology

Maslow is said to have coined the term ________ ________ which is a relatively recent branch of psychology that undertakes the scientific study of people's strengths and virtues and promotes optimal functioning of individuals and communities

The conflict perspective

The _____ ______ emphasizes conflicts that arise because of inequalities in the distribution of resources. It typically looks for sources of conflict in the economic and political arenas, and more recently in the cultural arena

Conflict perspective

______ perspective An approach to human behavior that draws attention to conflict, dominance, and oppression in social life. �conflict, power, domination, inequality. Social workers have drawn on the _____ perspective to understand dynamics of privilege,

empowerment theories

Social workers have used the conflict perspective as a base to develop practice oriented _______ theories, which focus on processes that individuals and collectivities can use to recognize patterns of inequality and injustice and take action to increase t

Securely attached

Attachment theory:
_______ attached infants act somewhat distressed when their parent figures leave but greet them eagerly and warmly upon return. Parents of _____ infants are sensitive and accepting. _______ attached children are unconcerned about securi

Anxious-ambivalently attached

Attachment theory:
________-_____ attached infants are distraught when their parent figures leave. Upon their parent's return, these infants continue to be distressed even as they want to be comforted and held. These children employ "hyperactivation" stra

Avoidantly attached

Attachment theory:
________ attached infants seem to be relatively undisturbed both when their parent figures leave and when they return. ______ children thus suppress expressions of overt distress and, rather than risk further rejection in the face of at

disorganized attachment

Attachment theory:
The _______ attachment style is characterized by chaotic and conflicted behaviors. These children exhibit simultaneous approach and avoidance behaviors. _______ infants seem incapable of applying any consistent strategy to bond with the


To understand how we develop our initial relationship patterns, it may be useful to consider one model of parent-child ________ here. All children seek proximity to their parents, and they develop _______ styles suited to the types of parenting they encou

transpersonal theories

based on _______ theories, specifically target the spiritual dimension. They focus on helping the person let go of ego attachments�identifications with the mind, body, and social roles�and transcend the self through various spiritually based practices. Wh


The term _______ literally means "beyond" or "through" the "persona" or "mask". When applied to theories of human behavior, _______ means going beyond identity tied to the individual body, ego, or social roles to include spiritual experience or higher lev

James Fowler's----> faith development

James Fowler's (1981, 1995) theory of _____ ______ grew out of 359 in-depth interviews conducted. Each semistructured interview consisted of more than 30 questions about life-shaping experiences and relationships, present values and commitments, and relig

ultimate environment

Important concept in Fowler's theory is the ______ ______ (also known as the ultimate reality or simply the ultimate)�the highest level of reality. Faith is not only your internal image of the ultimate environment but also your relationship with that imag

Prestage: primal faith (infancy).

Fowler: Prestage: _____ ______ (infancy). If consistent nurturance is experienced, the infant develops a sense of trust and safety about the universe and the divine. Negative experiences produce images of the ultimate as untrustworthy, punitive, or arbitr

Stage 1: intuitive-projective faith (early childhood, beginning about age 2).

Fowler: Stage 1: ______ _____ ______ (early childhood, beginning about age 2).The young child's new tools of speech and symbols give rise to fluid and magical thoughts, based on intuition and imagination.

Stage 2: mythic-literal faith (middle childhood, beginning about age 6, and beyond

Fowler: Stage 2: _____ _____ ____ (middle childhood, beginning about age 6, and beyond). The child begins to take on stories, beliefs, and practices that symbolize belonging to his or her community. There is a high degree of conformity to community belief

Stage 3: synthetic-conventional faith (adolescence and beyond).

Fowler: Stage 3: _____ ____ ____ (adolescence and beyond). For many adolescents, the capacity for abstract thinking and manipulation of concepts affects the process of developing faith as well as overall identity.

Stage 4: individuative-reflective faith (young adulthood and beyond)

Fowler: Stage 4: _______ _____ ____(young adulthood and beyond). Beginning in young adulthood, many people experience an increased responsibility for their own commitments, lifestyles, beliefs, and attitudes.

Stage 5: conjunctive faith (midlife and beyond).

Fowler: Stage 5: _____ ____ (midlife and beyond). A minority of adults begins in midlife to rework the past and become open to voices of the "deeper self." They develop the capacity for "both/and" versus "either/or" thinking and come to tolerate ambiguity

Stage 6: universalizing faith (midlife and beyond).

Fowler: Stage 6: ______ ______(midlife and beyond). A very small minority of adults develops the capacity to truly embrace paradox. They develop an enlarged awareness of justice and injustice. The vision of truth is expanded to recognize partial truths. S

levels of consciousness

Wilber currently refers to his approach as an "integral theory of consciousness." He identifies it as "integral" because it explores human development across four quadrants or vantage points (interior-individual, exterior-individual, interior-collective,

Level 7 (psychic or nature mysticism)

Level 7 (___ ___ ___ _____) is characterized by a continuing evolution of consciousness as the observing self develops more and more depth. Wilber refers to this evolving inner sense as the witness, because it represents an awareness that moves beyond ord

Level 8 (subtle or deity mysticism)

Wilber Level 8 (____ __ ___ ____) is characterized by an awareness of more subtle processes than are commonly experienced in gross, ordinary states of waking consciousness. Examples of such processes are interior light and sounds; awareness of transperson

Level 9 (causal or formless mysticism)

Level 9 (______ ____ ____ _____) transcends all distinctions between subject and object (even self and God). The witness is experienced as pure consciousness and pure awareness, prior to the manifestation of anything. Thus, this level is said to be timele

Level 10 (nondual),

Wilber also proposes a Level 10 (______), which is characterized by disidentification with even the witness. The interior sense of being a witness disappears, and the witness turns out to be everything that is witnessed. At this level, emptiness becomes p