Religion Mid Term Review


a priest from alexandria greatly influenced by greek philosophy


Defenders of the faithful


A form of Gnosticism; A heresy that said good spirits were trapped in reality and for them to be released you must destroy the objects they are trapped in.

St. Augustine of Hippo

Father and Doctor of the Church; one of the most influential men in the history of the Church; converted after a life of sinful habits; wrote Confessions


the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel after babylonian captivity

St. Ambrose

Bishop of Milan; wrote many early church hymns


A second-century Christian scholar and evangelist, later labeled a heretic for his docetic Christology and his belief in two Gods-- the harsh legalistic God of the Jews and the merciful loving God of Jesus-- views that he claimed to have found in the writ

Council of Jerusalem

the first church council, which was called to resolve the growing controversy over whether or not gentile christians would have to observe jewish law

Nag Hammadi texts

Place in Northern Egypt (Nag Hammadi) where in 1945, these books were found buried that mentioned Jesus. Goes back to 2nd and 3rd century AD known as the Gnostic Gospels.


A group of heretical religious movements that claimed salvation comes from secret knowledge available only to the elite initiated in that religion


First Christian martyr


Man who created rules for how a monk should live; father of western monasticism


world view


observation of self

Hellenistic Jewish Christians

greek jewish christians; first group to be persecuted in the church

Ora et Labora

Pray and work; summary of the Rule of St. Benedict


Means "good news

Models of the Church

Institution, Community, Sacrament, Servant, Herald

Clement VII

Pope who refused to grant the annulment of the marriage between King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon; looked to restore harmony in corinthian church

Shepherd of Hermas

The work of early Christian fathers which comprises five visions, twelve mandates, and ten parables. It relies on allegory and pays special attention to the Church, calling the faithful to repent of the sins that have harmed it.

St. Jermone

a Latin priest, confessor, theologian, and historian; best known for his translation of the Bible into Latin


the community of people who believe in Jesus Christ, have been baptized in him, and follow his teachings

Pontifex Maximus

the high priest of Rome, the head of Roman state religion; he appointed and oversaw the vestal virgins.


Bishop of Constantinople who called for the council of Ephesus because he believed Jesus was 2 persons, started Nestorian branch.

Which pope took the title "pontifex maximus"?

Pope Leo the Great


Greatest of the Jewish scholars in the first century; taught St. Paul the Old Testament.


A word that means "teaching" that described oral teaching to those who had already accepted Jesus.


Bishop and historian of the church. Most famous for his history of the church written in the 4th century AD


(ca. 360-420) - British monk who debated with Augustine over the nature of the human will. Pelagius taught that human nature is essentially good, that humans can avoid sinning, and that humans can freely choose to obey God's commands. He was condemned as


Moniker of St. John meaning "golden mouthed" it refers to the saints extraordinary preaching skills

Pope Leo the Great

A father and Doctor of the Church whose writings defended against heresy, he consolidated the papal power and took bold positions against barbarian invaders. Convinced the Vandals not to burn Rome.


Germanic people who had settled in northern Italy and were pushing south, threatening Rome; crushed by Charlemagne, earning him the papacy's gratitude


the first enemy city confronted by the Crusaders


A heresy arising in the fifth century that claimed there is only one nature in the Person of Christ, his human nature having been incorporated into his divine nature


A heresy developed in the late third century that denied Christ's full divinity, stating that Christ was a created being who was superior to human beings but inferior to God.


people who renounced their faith


5th century Frankish leader of a large kingdom who converted to Christianity

Missionary Activity

The process of preaching and proclaiming the Gospel of Jesus Christ to the whole world.


A way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith


a letter or literary composition in letter form

Edict of Milan

313 CE Constantine makes Christianity the primary religion of the Roman Empire

Perpetua and Felicity

Heifer, young mothers, thrown into arena, gored by a cow, wrote diary of imprisonment

Neronian Persecution

time period around 60 AD, Christians are targeted and killed by Nero


Mother of Augustine


Seen together

Acts of the Apostles

New Testament book that gives an account of events in the early Church; written by Luke