Which contaminants did we test?
Lead, Mercury, PCBs, and Dioxin
What does it mean if a contaminant is water soluble?
It readily dissolves in water
Which contaminants were water soluble?
Lead and Mercury
Why is it important to test pH?
pH can alter the toxicity and change the solubility of many pollutants; changes in pH
can lead to decreased reproduction and growth, disease, or death of organisms
What is a complex system that consists of air, water, nutrients, organic matter,
disintegrated rock and microorganisms?
Soil formation is a slow and complex process influenced
by which 5 factors?
Climate, organisms, topographic relief, parent
material, and time
Soil is made up of several layers called what? A cross
section of these is called what?
Horizons (O, E, B, C, R) and soil profile
What are the three main categories for soil texture based on
Silt, sand, clay
Why is soil texture important to plant growth?
� It affects soil porosity (size of spaces between soil
What are the three nutrients that are essential for plant
Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K)
What is the measurement of the arrangement of clay, silt,
and sand particles into aggregates called?
What is Sustainability?
The non-target marine animals unintentionally caught and often wasted while
catching certain target species of certain sizes
What is the "Tragedy of the Commons
Coined by Garrett Hardin in 1968 - A common
resource used communally may last indefinitely if
used sparingly, but if individuals take advantage,
the resource will rapidly degrade and be lost to all
What is aquaculture?
Farming of fish and other aquatic species for human consumption
What are some pros for aquaculture?
� Reduce pressures on oceans
� Feed growing population
� Create jobs
What are some cons for aquaculture?
Pollute water systems
� Habitat destruction
� Transfer of disease
� Deplete wild stocks
� Caged fish can escape and breed with wild fish
What factors have led to an increase in wildfish catches
in marine waters?
Increased technology, number of fisherman, and increased
pressure on fisheries
What are some causes for decline in the world's wild fish stocks?
Overfishing, bycatch, habitat loss, human population growth and demand
What is a native species?
A species, other than as a result of an introduction, historically occurred or currently
occurs in that ecosystem
What is an alien species?
Any species (including its seeds, eggs, spores, or other biological material capable of
propagating that species) that is not native to that ecosystem
What is an invasive species?
An "alien species" whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or
environmental harm or harm to human health
What makes invasive species successful?
Many are opportunistic, can live under poor conditions, have various ways of
dispersal, reproduce rapidly and a lot, and have no natural predators
List some examples of ecological disruption caused by invasive species:
Compete for resources with native species (can lead to native species being
listed as threatened or endangered leads to less diverse communities);
degrade aquatic habitats
What is it called when we refer only to those factors
that relate to changes in climate?
Global Climate Change
What is the change in the chemical, biological, and
physical properties of earth called?
What is it called when we refer only to changes to the
temperature of an area?
What is it called when infrared radiation is absorbed
by atmospheric gases and then that energy is
reradiated back towards the earth?
The Greenhouse Effect
What are the five greenhouse gases (GHGs)?
Water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2)
nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
What are natural sources of GHGs?
Volcanic eruptions (CO2),
decomposition of organic material in low oxygen conditions (CH4),
evaporation and transpiration
What are anthropogenic sources of GHGs?
Burning fossil fuels (CO2), agriculture (CH4), deforestation (CO2), landfills (CH4), industry
What are some predicted consequences for global warming?
� Temperature increases (increased heat spells and cold spells)
� More frequent flooding and drought (changes in precipitation patterns)
� Increased storm intensity
� Continued melting of polar ice gaps and glaciers
� Changes in ocean currents
� Changes i