Lab Final pt 2

Which contaminants did we test?

Lead, Mercury, PCBs, and Dioxin

What does it mean if a contaminant is water soluble?

It readily dissolves in water

Which contaminants were water soluble?

Lead and Mercury

Why is it important to test pH?

pH can alter the toxicity and change the solubility of many pollutants; changes in pH
can lead to decreased reproduction and growth, disease, or death of organisms

What is a complex system that consists of air, water, nutrients, organic matter,
disintegrated rock and microorganisms?


Soil formation is a slow and complex process influenced
by which 5 factors?

Climate, organisms, topographic relief, parent
material, and time

Soil is made up of several layers called what? A cross
section of these is called what?

Horizons (O, E, B, C, R) and soil profile

What are the three main categories for soil texture based on
particle size?

Silt, sand, clay

Why is soil texture important to plant growth?

� It affects soil porosity (size of spaces between soil

What are the three nutrients that are essential for plant

Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), and Potassium (K)

What is the measurement of the arrangement of clay, silt,
and sand particles into aggregates called?

Soil structure

What is Sustainability?



The non-target marine animals unintentionally caught and often wasted while
catching certain target species of certain sizes

What is the "Tragedy of the Commons

Coined by Garrett Hardin in 1968 - A common
resource used communally may last indefinitely if
used sparingly, but if individuals take advantage,
the resource will rapidly degrade and be lost to all

What is aquaculture?

Farming of fish and other aquatic species for human consumption

What are some pros for aquaculture?

� Reduce pressures on oceans
� Feed growing population
� Create jobs

What are some cons for aquaculture?

Pollute water systems
� Habitat destruction
� Transfer of disease
� Deplete wild stocks
� Caged fish can escape and breed with wild fish

What factors have led to an increase in wildfish catches
in marine waters?

Increased technology, number of fisherman, and increased
pressure on fisheries

What are some causes for decline in the world's wild fish stocks?

Overfishing, bycatch, habitat loss, human population growth and demand

What is a native species?

A species, other than as a result of an introduction, historically occurred or currently
occurs in that ecosystem

What is an alien species?

Any species (including its seeds, eggs, spores, or other biological material capable of
propagating that species) that is not native to that ecosystem

What is an invasive species?

An "alien species" whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or
environmental harm or harm to human health

What makes invasive species successful?

Many are opportunistic, can live under poor conditions, have various ways of
dispersal, reproduce rapidly and a lot, and have no natural predators

List some examples of ecological disruption caused by invasive species:

Compete for resources with native species (can lead to native species being
listed as threatened or endangered leads to less diverse communities);
degrade aquatic habitats

What is it called when we refer only to those factors
that relate to changes in climate?

Global Climate Change

What is the change in the chemical, biological, and
physical properties of earth called?

Global Change

What is it called when we refer only to changes to the
temperature of an area?

Global Warming

What is it called when infrared radiation is absorbed
by atmospheric gases and then that energy is
reradiated back towards the earth?

The Greenhouse Effect

What are the five greenhouse gases (GHGs)?

Water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2)
methane (CH4)
nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

What are natural sources of GHGs?

Volcanic eruptions (CO2),
decomposition of organic material in low oxygen conditions (CH4),
evaporation and transpiration

What are anthropogenic sources of GHGs?

Burning fossil fuels (CO2), agriculture (CH4), deforestation (CO2), landfills (CH4), industry

What are some predicted consequences for global warming?

� Temperature increases (increased heat spells and cold spells)
� More frequent flooding and drought (changes in precipitation patterns)
� Increased storm intensity
� Continued melting of polar ice gaps and glaciers
� Changes in ocean currents
� Changes i