APP Exam 1 (Section 1)

What are the 2 major divisions of the nervous system?

Central nervous system (CNS)
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

The Central nervous system (CNS) includes what (2) parts?

1. Brain
2. Spinal Cord

What enters and exits the central nervous system?

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

Name the 2 branches of the Peripheral nervous system (PNS):

1. Somatic nervous system
2. Autonomic nervous system

Somatic nervous system is involved in sensation of what 3 things?

Limb Movement

Somatic nervous system controls ________ _________ contraction?

Skeletal Muscle Contraction

Somatic sensory nerves travel from _____1____(such as muscle, skin, joints) to the___2___?

1. peripheral tissues
2. spinal cord

___________ travel from the peripheral tissues to the spinal cord

Somatic sensor nerves

________ travel from the spinal cord to the skeletal muscles

Motor Nerves

Motor Nerves travel from the ________ to the ________

Spinal Cord
Skeletal Muscles

Involved in the regulation of the internal environment (BP, RR, T, plasma glucose level, etc.)

Autonomic Nervous System

Autonomic Nervous System regulates the _________ _________?

internal environment (BP, RR, T, plasma glucose level, etc.)

The Autonomic Nervous System is comprised of the _________ and ________ nervous systems

1. Sympathetic
2. Parasympathetic

The principle regulator of the autonomic nervous system is the?


What 3 things is the brainstem comprised of?

1. Medulla
2. Pons
3. Midbrain

The ____________ contains ascending and descending nerve tracts (axon bundles) and contains CV center and Respiratory center nuclei.


What 2 important nuclei are contained in the medulla?

1. CV centers (ctrl HR & BP)
2. Respiratory centers (ctrl respiratory muscle activity)

The cardiovascular centers that control blood pressure are located in the?


Dorsal portion of the ________ contains ascending and descending nerve tracts and nuclei


Name the one important nucleus in the dorsal portion of the pons?

Locus Coeruleus ("blue area")

Axons project from the locus coeruleus to the hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex play a role in what?

Plays a role in the arousal of higher brain areas

Depletion of NE in neurons of locus coeruleus may play role in what?


The basal portion of the Pons provides connections between the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum; these connections are essential for the control of

motor activities

The _______ portion of the Pons provides connections between the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum


The basal portion of the Pons provides connections between the _____________ and the ____________.

cerebral cortex

Name the important nucleus in the Midbrain.

Substantia Nigra

What part of the brainstem contains nerve tracts and has the Substantia Nigra nucleus


What may occur with degeneration of the substantia nigra?

Parkinson's Disease

Where is the reticular formation located?

runs through the brainstem

___________ ________ :Receives input from nearly all of the sensory systems�pain, T, touch, Pressure, and sensory endings in the viscera�activate the RF neurons
also receives input from the cerebral cortex; thoughts and motor activity generated in the cor

Reticular Formation

Projects axons to the thalamus, limbic system, and cerebral cortex� projection is called the

reticular activating system (RAS)

RAS-provides ____________ _________of higher brain areas

Background Excitation

Excess reticular activating system (RAS) may trigger?

grand Mal (tonic-clonic) seizure

Injury to reticular formation can cause ________


Barbiturates (sedative/hypnotics) depress reticular formation activity � >depresses cortical activity and may cause ________


Silent area" of the brain; electrical excitation does not cause sensation or movement


Injury to the cerebellum can severely impair ________ _____, without causing muscle paralysis

motor activities

________: receives sensory input from the muscles, joints, eyes, inner ears, brainstem, motor cortex. It coordinates skeletal muscle activity involved with maintenance of equilibrium and posture, locomotion, and rapid nonstereotyped movements based on ind


_______ acts "behind the scene" at a subconscious level because it does not initiate movements it coordinates voluntary movement


The Cerebellum does not _______ movements, but smoothly coordinates ________ movements.

does not INITIATE movements,
coordinates VOLUNTARY movements

The cerebellum is primarily a ________ _______ of the brain

motor area

What components make up the Forebrain (Cerebrum)

1. Diencephalon (Thalamus & Hypothalamus)
2. Telencephalon (cerebral hemispheres left and right - including basal ganglia, striatum, globus pallidus, cerebral cortext)

The role of the thalamus as a relay network for sensory information directed to the________ _______

cerebral cortex

______: relays sensory info to the cerebral cortex via sensory relay nuclei �relays motor info from the cerebellum and basal ganglia to the motor cortex via the motor relay nuclei


__________: an extension of the reticular formation
Continuous with the upper reticular formation of the brainstem� receives input from reticular formation
Output directed to most areas of the cerebral cortex and affects the overall level of activity in t

Generalized thalamocortical system (GTS)

Excessive activity in the Generalized thalamocortical system (GTS) may cause?

absence (petit Mal) seizure

The ____________ is the primary regulator for the autonomic visceral functions (BP, T, feeding, thirst, hormone secretion)


The Hypothalamus has nuclei that monitor _______ variables (plasma osmolality, core T, energy stores, etc)


The hypothalamus is the central component of the _____ _____ and is directly connected to other areas (amygdala, hippocampus)�involved with emotions and motivation

limbic system

The hypothalamus provides a connection between ________ and associated physiological responses


The basal ganglia is in the __________


________: Composed of clusters of nerve cells (ganglia)�found at the base of each cerebral hemisphere
Components: striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen) and globus pallidus (pallidum)

Basal Ganglia

The 2 components of the Basal Ganglia are?

1. striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen)
2. globus pallidus (pallidum)

An area of the forebrain that is important for the initiation of intentional movements is the ________?


Degenerative lesions of _______may cause dyskinesias in which involuntary choreiform movements (jerky, purposeless movements) are prominent�Huntington's chorea = genetic d/ o with neuronal degeneration of striatum


__________: comprises outermost layer of brain Arranged into folds (gyro) and grooves (sulci)

Cerebral cortex

The folds of the outer surface of the cortex are known as


Grooves in the outer surface of the cerebral cortex are called


The cerebral cortex contains ______% of the 100 billion neurons in the brain, makes up ______% total weight of brain.

75% of neurons
40% of brain weight

What are the 4 lobes of the Cerebral Cortex?

1. Occipital Lobe
2. Parietal Lobe
3. Frontal Lobe
4. Temporal Lobe

Occipital Lobe of the Cerebral cortex regulates what?


The Parietal Lobe of the Cerebral Cortex regulates what?

Somatic sensory cortex - detects and interprets somatic sensory information

The Temporal Lobe of the cerebral cortex regulates what (3)?

1. Hearing
2. Language Comprehension
3. Memory

The Frontal Lobe of the cerebral cortex regulates what (3)?

1. Motor cortex
2. Memory
3. Behavior

Which is the largest lobe of the cerebral cortex?

Frontal Lobe

The majority of the human cortex is __________ _________ (executive activities of the brain), rather than sensory and motor areas as in lower mammals

association cortex

___________ (in all lobes)�integrative function, where current info is integrated with past experience (memory) and emotion �executive function�particular association with frontal lobe

association cortex

___________ has extensive connection with other lobes of the brain�thought to monitor behavior and to control behavior based on higher activities (judgement, foresight)

prefrontal association cortex

The left and right cerebral hemispheres are connected by the

Corpus Callosum

_________: The right hemisphere controls somatic sensation and movement on the body's left side; the left hemisphere controls somatic sensation and movement on the body's right side

Contralateral representation

____________ -Control of language is usually localized in one hemisphere (dominant hemisphere)� R handed 95%, speech and language controlled by left hemisphere, L handed�70% have Left hemisphere control of language and 15% have right and 15% have bilatera

Lateralization of function

Damage to the dominant hemisphere early in life can shift control of language to the nondominant hemisphere give one example of this?

Brian Plasticity

What do these 5 structures of the Forebrain participate in?
1. Hypothalamus�key central component
2. Amygdala�"window" to limbic system�point where info enters the limbic system�important in emotional response to threatening situations (including fear)

Limbic System

window" to limbic system�point where info enters the limbic system�important in emotional response to threatening situations (including fear)


important in learning and memory�possible role in anxiety