What are the 2 major divisions of the nervous system?
Central nervous system (CNS)
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
The Central nervous system (CNS) includes what (2) parts?
2. Spinal Cord
What enters and exits the central nervous system?
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Name the 2 branches of the Peripheral nervous system (PNS):
1. Somatic nervous system
2. Autonomic nervous system
Somatic nervous system is involved in sensation of what 3 things?
Somatic nervous system controls ________ _________ contraction?
Skeletal Muscle Contraction
Somatic sensory nerves travel from _____1____(such as muscle, skin, joints) to the___2___?
1. peripheral tissues
2. spinal cord
___________ travel from the peripheral tissues to the spinal cord
Somatic sensor nerves
________ travel from the spinal cord to the skeletal muscles
Motor Nerves travel from the ________ to the ________
Involved in the regulation of the internal environment (BP, RR, T, plasma glucose level, etc.)
Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System regulates the _________ _________?
internal environment (BP, RR, T, plasma glucose level, etc.)
The Autonomic Nervous System is comprised of the _________ and ________ nervous systems
The principle regulator of the autonomic nervous system is the?
What 3 things is the brainstem comprised of?
The ____________ contains ascending and descending nerve tracts (axon bundles) and contains CV center and Respiratory center nuclei.
What 2 important nuclei are contained in the medulla?
1. CV centers (ctrl HR & BP)
2. Respiratory centers (ctrl respiratory muscle activity)
The cardiovascular centers that control blood pressure are located in the?
Dorsal portion of the ________ contains ascending and descending nerve tracts and nuclei
Name the one important nucleus in the dorsal portion of the pons?
Locus Coeruleus ("blue area")
Axons project from the locus coeruleus to the hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex play a role in what?
Plays a role in the arousal of higher brain areas
Depletion of NE in neurons of locus coeruleus may play role in what?
The basal portion of the Pons provides connections between the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum; these connections are essential for the control of
The _______ portion of the Pons provides connections between the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum
The basal portion of the Pons provides connections between the _____________ and the ____________.
Name the important nucleus in the Midbrain.
What part of the brainstem contains nerve tracts and has the Substantia Nigra nucleus
What may occur with degeneration of the substantia nigra?
Where is the reticular formation located?
runs through the brainstem
___________ ________ :Receives input from nearly all of the sensory systems�pain, T, touch, Pressure, and sensory endings in the viscera�activate the RF neurons
also receives input from the cerebral cortex; thoughts and motor activity generated in the cor
Projects axons to the thalamus, limbic system, and cerebral cortex� projection is called the
reticular activating system (RAS)
RAS-provides ____________ _________of higher brain areas
Excess reticular activating system (RAS) may trigger?
grand Mal (tonic-clonic) seizure
Injury to reticular formation can cause ________
Barbiturates (sedative/hypnotics) depress reticular formation activity � >depresses cortical activity and may cause ________
Silent area" of the brain; electrical excitation does not cause sensation or movement
Injury to the cerebellum can severely impair ________ _____, without causing muscle paralysis
________: receives sensory input from the muscles, joints, eyes, inner ears, brainstem, motor cortex. It coordinates skeletal muscle activity involved with maintenance of equilibrium and posture, locomotion, and rapid nonstereotyped movements based on ind
_______ acts "behind the scene" at a subconscious level because it does not initiate movements it coordinates voluntary movement
The Cerebellum does not _______ movements, but smoothly coordinates ________ movements.
does not INITIATE movements,
coordinates VOLUNTARY movements
The cerebellum is primarily a ________ _______ of the brain
What components make up the Forebrain (Cerebrum)
1. Diencephalon (Thalamus & Hypothalamus)
2. Telencephalon (cerebral hemispheres left and right - including basal ganglia, striatum, globus pallidus, cerebral cortext)
The role of the thalamus as a relay network for sensory information directed to the________ _______
______: relays sensory info to the cerebral cortex via sensory relay nuclei �relays motor info from the cerebellum and basal ganglia to the motor cortex via the motor relay nuclei
__________: an extension of the reticular formation
Continuous with the upper reticular formation of the brainstem� receives input from reticular formation
Output directed to most areas of the cerebral cortex and affects the overall level of activity in t
Generalized thalamocortical system (GTS)
Excessive activity in the Generalized thalamocortical system (GTS) may cause?
absence (petit Mal) seizure
The ____________ is the primary regulator for the autonomic visceral functions (BP, T, feeding, thirst, hormone secretion)
The Hypothalamus has nuclei that monitor _______ variables (plasma osmolality, core T, energy stores, etc)
The hypothalamus is the central component of the _____ _____ and is directly connected to other areas (amygdala, hippocampus)�involved with emotions and motivation
The hypothalamus provides a connection between ________ and associated physiological responses
The basal ganglia is in the __________
________: Composed of clusters of nerve cells (ganglia)�found at the base of each cerebral hemisphere
Components: striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen) and globus pallidus (pallidum)
The 2 components of the Basal Ganglia are?
1. striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen)
2. globus pallidus (pallidum)
An area of the forebrain that is important for the initiation of intentional movements is the ________?
Degenerative lesions of _______may cause dyskinesias in which involuntary choreiform movements (jerky, purposeless movements) are prominent�Huntington's chorea = genetic d/ o with neuronal degeneration of striatum
__________: comprises outermost layer of brain Arranged into folds (gyro) and grooves (sulci)
The folds of the outer surface of the cortex are known as
Grooves in the outer surface of the cerebral cortex are called
The cerebral cortex contains ______% of the 100 billion neurons in the brain, makes up ______% total weight of brain.
75% of neurons
40% of brain weight
What are the 4 lobes of the Cerebral Cortex?
1. Occipital Lobe
2. Parietal Lobe
3. Frontal Lobe
4. Temporal Lobe
Occipital Lobe of the Cerebral cortex regulates what?
The Parietal Lobe of the Cerebral Cortex regulates what?
Somatic sensory cortex - detects and interprets somatic sensory information
The Temporal Lobe of the cerebral cortex regulates what (3)?
2. Language Comprehension
The Frontal Lobe of the cerebral cortex regulates what (3)?
1. Motor cortex
Which is the largest lobe of the cerebral cortex?
The majority of the human cortex is __________ _________ (executive activities of the brain), rather than sensory and motor areas as in lower mammals
___________ (in all lobes)�integrative function, where current info is integrated with past experience (memory) and emotion �executive function�particular association with frontal lobe
___________ has extensive connection with other lobes of the brain�thought to monitor behavior and to control behavior based on higher activities (judgement, foresight)
prefrontal association cortex
The left and right cerebral hemispheres are connected by the
_________: The right hemisphere controls somatic sensation and movement on the body's left side; the left hemisphere controls somatic sensation and movement on the body's right side
____________ -Control of language is usually localized in one hemisphere (dominant hemisphere)� R handed 95%, speech and language controlled by left hemisphere, L handed�70% have Left hemisphere control of language and 15% have right and 15% have bilatera
Lateralization of function
Damage to the dominant hemisphere early in life can shift control of language to the nondominant hemisphere give one example of this?
What do these 5 structures of the Forebrain participate in?
1. Hypothalamus�key central component
2. Amygdala�"window" to limbic system�point where info enters the limbic system�important in emotional response to threatening situations (including fear)
window" to limbic system�point where info enters the limbic system�important in emotional response to threatening situations (including fear)
important in learning and memory�possible role in anxiety