Final for Environmental Science

Not having access to enough clean water supplies is known as _______________.

Water scarcity

Which of the following is the closest to the World Health Organization's estimated for those without access to clean water?

33%

An aquifer that is separated by impermeable rock is called a(n) _____________ aquifer.

Confined

Problems associated with poor sanitation include ____________.

Disease transmission, exposure to toxins, dehydration, premature death (all the above)

Which practice requires the greatest amount of water input?

Producing 1 pound of beef

Which of the following, contribute to the formation of precipitation?

Cold air in the upper atmosphere, solar energy, the movement of groundwater, evaporation

Groundwater in aquifers is naturally replenished by ________________.

Infiltration

In January 2008, Orange County implemented the Groundwater Replenishment System that reclaimed water that normally would have been wasted as ______________.

Ocean

Water scarcity can lead to __________.

A short life span, malnutrition, conflict over water rights, cultural turmoil (All the above)

The action by which plant roots pull water from the soil and then release some of it into the atmosphere is known as _____________.

Transpiration

Out of all the water on the Earth, how much is usable by humans for drinking?

Less than 1%

Final treatments of wastewater in the United States normally involves treatment with _______________.

Chlorine

Desalination, the process that removes __________ from water is ______________.

Salt and other minerals; expensive

Currently, several states are using recycled water for nonpotable uses including __________.

Irrigating landscapes, irrigating crops, filling fountains, flushing toilets (all the above)

Of all the following on the Earth, approx. __________ is trapped in ice.

80%

___________ treatment is a physical process that removes large particles with a screen

Primary

Switching to water-saving drip irrigation methods not only saves water but also __________.

All the above

How did the Orange County Water District solve the problem of saltwater intrusion into unconfined coastal aquifers?

It began to pump highly treated sewage wastewater into infiltrated wells

While dams are important, they lose large amounts of water everyday due to _____________.

Evaporation

The most cost-effective form of water purification is _________________.

Evaporation

When treatment marshes are used by sewage treatment facilities to treat wastewater, the treatment marsh is acting as a form of ____________ treatment.

Secondary

Water that has a low level of dissolved ions in it can be found in ___________.

All the above

Wetland filtration systems differ from traditional high-tech filtration systems in that __________.

Both A & B (They create water that is not potable and they depend on nature to help purify sewage)

Coliform bacteria indicate the contamination of water body with __________.

Fecal material

Our per capita use of water is known as__________.

Ecological footprint (Wrong)

To ensure an ongoing water source, communities construct _________, which in turn create __________.

Dams; reservoirs

In the southwestern United States, the use of water is approaching or exceeding sustainable limits. This is a good example of ___________.

Physical water scarcity

How much less water does newer energy star washing machines use compared to older models?

50%

Which of the following continents has the greatest water scarcity?

Africa

To make wastewater ____________, or clean enough for consumption, it is put through a process called reverse osmosis.

Potable

Gravity "powers" all of the following processes of the hydrological cycle except _____.

Transpiration

The top of the rain-saturated region that may rise or fall seasonally is called the _________.

Water table

The largest potential source of freshwater is found in___________.

Polar ice caps and glaciers

What is watershed?

It is the area of land that drains into a body of water

Waterfront precipitation that runs off urban areas, agricultural fields, and suburban lawns and flows over the surface of the land is known as ________________.

Stormwater runoff

Eutrophication is caused by__________________.

Natural sources, man-made sources, point sources, and nonpoint sources (All the above)

The U.S. Department of Agriculutre recommends that at least ____________ feet of land be set aside for use in the riparian area

75

Which of the following is NOT likely to result from eutrophication?

Hypoxia (?)

The ____________________ regulates industrial pollutants and sets allowable levels of pollutants that can be present in environmental waters or released over a certain period of time.

Clean Water Act

A _________ is the land area adjacent to a body of water that is affected by the water's presence and that affects the water.

Riparian area

The leading cause of impaired surface waters in the United States is ________________.

Pathogen

One of the best management practices set up for the Chesapeake Bay watershed regulates the principle source of excessive nutrients. This source is ______________.

Washington DC (?) Wrong

The harvest of mussel population from the bay have long been a source of income for residents in your small coastal town. You notice that the harvests have declined each year for the past decade as the bays watershed has become increasingly developed. Whi

Eutrophication

Which of the following nutrients is a major contributor to eutrophication?

Phosphorus

A(n)_______________ is an underground, permeable region of soil or rock that is saturated with water.

Aquifer

Sources of nitrogen pollution in water include_________________.

All the above

An area over which rain and other sources of water drain into a body of water is called a(n) __________________.

Watershed

Which of the following is a problem in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem?

Excess nitrogen, excess phosphorus, high sediment loads, a decline in fisheries (All the above)

The process by which surface water soaks into the soil, pollutants are removed and the water is purified is called ________.

Infiltration

A healthy riparian area includes ______________.

Native species and a mixture of trees, shrubs, and ground vegetation (both a & b)

The Chesapeake Bay's watershed is particularly vulnerable to pollution because of all but which of the following reasons?

Most of the watershed is forested

Which of the following is a benefit provided by the vegetation found in the riparian area?

All the above

Water pollution can cause _______________.

All the above

Steeper terrain in the riparian area may require ___________ than the 75 feet of land recommended by the US Department of Agriculture to adequately protect the aquatic ecosystem

More

Sources of mercury pollution in water include __________.

All the above

Low dissolved oxygen levels result in a situation called_________.

Hypoxia

_______________pollution comes from multiple locations that are easy to define.

Nonpoint source

The amount of oxygen used by microbes living in a body of water is known as the ____________.

Biological oxygen demand

_______________ is the addition of anything that might degrade water quality.

Water pollution

A ___________ is a method that can be used to assess that status of an aquatic ecosystem.

Biological assessment

In suburban areas, lawns can be a major source of nonpoint pollution. Utilizing _________ in these area can help prevent pollution in nearby water sources.

Nitrogen- enriched fertilizer (Wrong) Hypoxic techniques Wrong

____________ is a set of EPA regulated actions that minimize pollution caused by construction, industrial, or land-use impacts on streams and lakes

Best management practices

Pick the nonpoint source of water pollution.

Air pollution

Choosing to buy good with minimal packaging is an example of ____________.

reducing

The most effective way for each of us to reduce toxic wastes is to avoid the use of chemicals that are potentially hazardous. This approach is referred to as ________.

Source reduction

In 2009 alone, each American produced about_______ of solid waste per day.

4.3 pounds

Tiny bits of plastic gather in specific areas of the worlds oceans where strong currents circle sound areas with very weak or even nor current. These regions are called _______.

Gyre

What is the MOST APPROPRIATE way to handle hazardous waste?

None of the above are appropriate way to handle hazardous waste

Incinerators reduce the volume of solid waste by about __________.

80-90%

Hazardous waste is _______________.

Waste that is toxic, flammable, corrosive, explosive or radioactive

The four R's to help an individual limit waste production is ____________.

Refuse, reduce, reuse, recycle

One of the cheapest and most common methods of handling solid wastes in developing countries is __________.

Recycling (Wrong)

Waste is _________________.

A human term used to describe things we throw away

________________ is harmful to humans; it is toxic, corrosive, explosive and/or radioactive

Hazardous waste

Which of the following is NOT a way to personally reduce your solid waste production?

Buying organic foods from developing countries

When e-waste is improperly recycled, toxic metals can be released which can include _____________.

Lead, mercury, chromium (All the above)

Matter cannot be created nor destroyed; it only changes form. This is the law of ______________.

Conservation of matter

Which of the following is NOT a component of newer sanitary landfill?

incinerator

_______ is the process of allowing waste to biologically decompose in the presence of oxygen and water.

Composting

Which of the following materials should NOT be added to a compost pile?

Pet waste

Disassembling equipment, machinery, and appliances into components which can be salvaged or reused is an example of ___________.

Reducing? (Wrong)

Hazardous and nonhazardous wastes in developing countries often end up in open dumps. Which of the following is FALSE regarding open dumps?

Sanitary landfills and open dumps are essentially the same thing.

Why can't we permanently get rid of the waste we generate?

Disposal costs are prohibitive. (Wrong)

_________ require(s) manufacturers to take back some of their products after consumers are finished with them.

Take back law

A city is considering constructing a new industrial park to increase revenue and exports. They also want to make the park sustainable, so they should employ techniques involved in __________.

Industrial ecology

Sanitary landfills are commonly used in the United States to manage solid waste. Since decomposition in sanitary landfills relies upon anaerobic bacteria (those that live in oxygen-poor environments), a large amount of ______ is produced.

methane

The majority of municipal solid waste produced in the United States ends up being __________.

landfill

In the United States, 54% of all garbage is categorized as ___________ waste.

Municipal paper (Wrong)

Incineration of waste reduces its volume by 80-90%, which is good. What are problems associated with this practice?

All of the choices listed above are problems associated with incineration.

Declining to take a plastic bag for a few items purchased at a store is an example of ________.

refusing

Which of the following is NOT considered as hazardous waste?

e-waste (Wrong)

A manufacturer of potato chips claims that its packaging can be broken down by living organisms. This packaging is considered _____________.

Biodegradable

Ecological concerns regarding plastics in oceans include which of the following?

All of the above are concerns regarding plastics in oceans.

Everyday garbage or trash (solid waste) produced by individuals or small businesses is known as ____________.

municipal solid waste

Consumers can decrease the amount of landfilled solid waste by ___________.

All of the choices listed above will decrease solid waste generation.

Consumers enjoy many benefits from organic farming. Which of the following is a benefit of organic farming to consumers?

All the above

Many advantages and disadvantages are associated with organic farming techniques, both for the environment, the consumer, and the farmer. Which of the following is FALSE?

More subsidies are available for farmers who use organic techniques.

Environmental issues caused by industrial farming techniques include which of the following?

All of the choices above are environmental issues caused by industrial farming.

The Green Revolution 2.0 is __________________.

a movement that focuses on the production of genetically modified organisms to increase crop productivity or create new varieties of crops

A rice farmer can use integrated farming techniques in which ducklings, azolla and fish are used to produce their crops without any extra chemical additives. This integrated technique _______________.

eliminates the need for synthetic and toxic chemicals (Wrong)

Characteristic features of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) include which of the following?

Animals are generally not permitted to roam free.

All of the following are considered sustainable farming techniques EXCEPT _______.

Green Revolution techniques

The coordinated global effort to eliminate hunger by improving crop performance using modern agricultural technologies in developing countries is called _______.

the Food Act (wrong)

Which of the following foods would be most efficient for feeding a growing world population?

grain

The farming technique that allows for efficient, mass production of food is called ________ agriculture.

polyculture (Wrong) mono (?)

_______ are/is (an) organism(s) or product(s) that contains genes from another species.

All the above

Sustainable agriculture is defined as ______________.

a farming method that does not deplete resources, such as soil and water, faster than they are replaced

Rearing meat or dairy animals in confined spaces, maximizing the number of animals that can be grown in a small area is referred to as a __________.

concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO)

Which of the following choices was NOT introduced with the Green Revolution?

chemical pesticides (Wrong)

Which of the following is a TRUE statement

GMOs will almost certainly be part of the solution to meeting future food demands as the global population swells.

Which of the following choices requires the greatest amount of feed and water to produce one pound of food?

Pork (Wrong)

The Dust Bowl of the 1930's was caused by severe drought coupled with farming techniques that left the bare soil vulnerable to wind erosion. Which of the following sustainable farming techniques would help prevent such a phenomenon from happening again?

Reduced tillage

By planting corn one year and beans the next on a given plot of land, or by planting alfalfa as a cover crop during the off-season, a farmer reduces the need for ___________ because beans and alfalfa fix nitrogen in the soil.

Inorganic fertilizers

Which of the following is an advantage of organic farming for the farmer/environment?

All the above

All of the following would be sustainable agriculture methods to reduce soil erosion EXCEPT:

Strip cropping

A(n) _______ organism is one that contains genes from another species.

transgeneic

The distance a food travels from its site of production to the consumer is _____.
Question 7 options:

Is referred to as food miles.

Modern industrial agriculture methods __________________.

rely on renewable energy sources to power modern farming equipment (Wrong) maintain and enrich ecosystem services( Wrong)

__________ is the driving force behind the Green Revolution 2.0.

Genetic engineering

_________ are organisms that have had their genetic information modified in a way that does not occur naturally.

GMO's

Which of the following is a disadvantage of organic farming for the consumer?

All the above

________ is a term that describes misleading claims about the healthiness of organic foods.

greenwashing

________ is farming without the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and other chemical additives

Synthetic farming

Many factors can contribute to the inability of a country to be food self-sufficient. Which of the following choices is NOT one of those factors?

Natural disasters (?)

Which of the following is FALSE regarding "grass-fed" beef?

Grass-fed animals gain weight more rapidly than feedlot animals.

Which strategy would Greg and Raquel Massa NOT apply in managing their farm given their conversion to organic agriculture?

planting native oak trees along field borders as a windbreaks (Wrong)

planting native oak trees along field borders as a windbreak

Crop rotation

Genetic engineering involves transfer of genes for desirable characteristics including ___________.

All the above

One of the advantages of coal is that it started the Industrial Revolution in ____________________, then ____________________ and more recently in ____________________.

Great Britain; the United States; China

On an annual basis, which of the following pollutants are produced in the greatest amounts?

Toxic ash

Burning coal to generate electricity creates all of the following types of pollution except ____________________.

None of the above

Clean coal technologies are being developed to ____________________.

All the above

The key to generating electricity from coal is the generation of_________.

heat

Which of the following is the biggest advantage to the United States's use of coal?

It is the most efficient way to produce electricity (Wrong) most efficient way to produce electricity (wrong)

Which of the following choices has the highest energy return on energy investment ratio?

wind

Which of the following choices is NOT typical for converting coal to electricity?

Converting the coal to liquid form

__________________ is removing dirt and rock that overlays a mineral deposit close to the surface in order to access that deposit.

Surface mining

Pollution from U.S. coal power plants include all of the following except?

ozone

How does the use of coal cause acid precipitation?

Acids, which lead into the soil from the mining process, are transpired by plants that have taken them up (Wrong) The burning of coal (?)

The greatest amount of electricity in the United States is generated using ____________________.

coal

__________________ consists of digging tunnels or shafts into the Earth to reach buried ore deposits

Subsurface mining

Which of the following regions once held the U.S.'s largest coal reserves?

Appalachian Mountains`

Home water wells close to reclaimed mines exceed EPA's allowances for which of the following?

All the above

Which of the following has coal deposits that rival North America?

China

All of the following are environmental drawbacks to the mining of coal EXCEPT ____________________.

The release of tons of toxic ash

What is one common criticism of mountaintop removal mine reclamation?

All the above

Which area of the world has the least amount of coal reserves?

Africa

Benefits of using coal as an energy source include _________.

All the above (low cost electricity, an established distribution system, easy to isolate, simple processing)

Which of the following resources is used the LEAST in the United States for generating electricity?

Renewable (Wrong) Oil (?)

Coal is a solid fossil fuel formed when plant material is buried in _________ conditions and subjected to _______ over a long time.

Oxygen-poor; high heat and pressure

Which of the following choices is NOT true about coal?

It is a renewable resource

The use of coal creates all of the following impacts except ____________.

Reduced water temperatures in water bodies

If we do not change our current rates of coal usage, how long would the proven coal resources last?

120 years

The form of coal with the highest energy content is __________.

anthracite

Which of the following is NOT a problem associated with mountaintop removal missing?

While have environmental impacts, it leads to greater employment for residents

Fly ash can be taken to a landfill that is expensive and not environmentally friendly, or it can be used to make ___________ which benefits both the power plant and the environment

concrete

In Ireland, peat is often burned as a source of fuel. Peat is known to turn into which of the following fossil fuels?

coal

The Environmental Protection Agency's new Mercury and Air Toxics Standards are projected to reduce emissions of these toxic substances by how much?

90%

The Hobet 21 mine is best known as ___________.

a surface mine in Wyoming (Wrong)

Overburden is associated with what type of coal mining?

Surface mining

We currently have technologies to capture all but which of the following?

All the above (mercury, particulates, sulfur, carbon dioxide)

What does the term "peak oil" mean?

It is the moment in time when oil reaches its highest production levels

The largest concentrations of oil shales are found in ______________.

The US

What is the name of the process used to refine crude oil?

Simple distillation

If current rates of use and extraction do not change, known oil reserves are expected to last for ____________ years?

40

All of the following are products of crude oil refining EXCEPT ____________________.

Natural gas

When an oil well is first drilled, what is the primary recovery method?

natural pressure

When talking about the formation of fossil fuels, cap rock is a ________________.

dense layer holding in natural gas and petroleum

______________ is compressed sedimentary rocks that contain kerogen that is released as oil like liquid when the rock is heat

Oil shale

How does the preliminary search for oil reserves cause environmental degradation?

Seismic waves sent into the ground by companies searching for reserves can disorient marine and other wildlife

The three principle fossil fuels are __________________.

Coal, oil, natural gas

Which currently contributes most to energy independence in the United States?

Natural gas reserves

The EROEI must be ____________ for any fuel to be worth harvesting.

positive

One advantage in burning natural gas instead of oil for fuel is ___________________.

it produces lower amounts of CO2 and other pollutants

Petrochemicals create the raw materials used to produce which of the following?

Pesticides (wrong) All the above (?)

Which of the following is probably the most compelling reason to use unconventional sources of oil here in the United States?

We have a lot of them in North America

Which of the following types of fuel is composed of hydrocarbons?

None of above (Wrong) All the above (?)

What does it mean if a country is "energy independent?

A country can meet of all of its energy needs without importing any fuel.

What is the approximate species richness of the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem that was impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill?

15,000

What is the definition of "unconventional oil reserves?

recoverable oil that is found in rock, sand, or clay whose extraction is expensive and environmentally costly

A nonrenewable natural resource formed millions of years ago from plant or animal remains that is used as an energy source is called a ___________________.

Fossil fuel

In terms of petroleum, what is a reserve?

a measure of the amount of petroleum that is economically feasible to extract from a deposit using current technology

Natural gas is similar to oil in that it _________________.

All the above

At the current rate of usage, which of the following energy sources is expected to run out first?

Natural gas

Coal is generally formed from high heat and pressure turning _____________ into a fossil fuel. Oil and natural gas are generally formed from high heat and pressure turning ______________ into a fossil fuel.

Plant life; marine life

How can a society increase its energy security?

All the above

The largest reservoirs of oil are found in?

Middle East

Which of the following statements about tar sands is not true?

Tar sands mining is more efficient than harvesting conventional sources of oil.

Natural gas is composed mainly of ________________.

methane

Currently, world demand for oil rises more than ____________ percent each year.

2

Fracking is a method to extract _______________ from deep unconventional reserves

Natural gas

Which of the following choices is a source of mercury pollution?

All of the above

Even the most isolated regions on Earth are vulnerable to the effects of air pollution because atmospheric and hydrologic circulation moves chemical and particulate pollutants around the globe. This is an example of ___________.

transboundary pollution

Which of the following choices contribute(s) to the formation of ground-level ozone?

All the above

________ is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases in the United States and other developed nations and a major cause of childhood disability.

Asthma

Air pollutants released directly from any source are considered to be which of the following?

Primary air pollutants

_______ is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is produced from the decay of uranium in rock. After seeping through foundations, it can accumulate in basements and lead to lung cancer.

radon

Air pollution can cause which of the following conditions?

All the above

In developing countries, the main source of indoor air pollution is _______.

particulates like soot as a result of cooking with wood or charcoal

Which of the following is/are NOT contained in smog?

CFCs

________ is any material added to the atmosphere that harms organisms, affects the climate, or impacts structures.

Air pollution

The World Health Organization estimates that more than _______ people die prematurely each year as a result of exposure to air pollution.

3 million

Increased rates of ______ and _______ have been observed in children living in cities compared to children living in rural areas?

The EPA

Which form of air pollution is acid rain?

Secondary air pollutant

Increased rates of ______ and _______ have been observed in children living in cities compared to children living in rural areas?

Asthma; allergies

Which of the following is a source of indoor air pollution?

All the above

Which of the following is a consequence of acid deposition?

All the above

Which is FALSE regarding pollutants defined as hazardous by the EPA?

None of above

Sources of sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollution include __________.

All the above

Why are children of low-income families at a higher risk for asthma than those from wealthier families?

Their homes and schools are often located near major roads or factories

Power plants are often built in neighborhoods where residents have less ability to fight for their rights. This is a violation of ___________.

Environmental justice

In 1963, the United States passed the ______, which sets a maximum amount for emissions of pollutants or the presence of pollutants in ambient air.

Clean Air Act

Paints can release _______ while drying, and one way to prevent these pollutants from accumulating indoors is by _________.

VOCs; providing good ventilation

How do secondary pollutants form?

They form when primary air pollutants react with one another or with other chemicals in the air.

Particulate pollution includes all of the following EXCEPT for _______.

Carbon dioxide

Which of the following air pollutants is NOT regulated by the EPA?

None of the above

Which of the following sources of outdoor air pollution is anthropogenic?

Controlled burns

Which of the following air pollution can cause damage to the nervous, excretory, immune, reproductive, and cardiovascular systems; biomagnify in food chains; and was officially banned from the US gas supply in 1996?

Lead (Pb)

What is the biggest problem associated with air pollution?

Birth defects (?)

Which of the following is NOT a source of indoor air pollution?

Foundation cement

Pollution that is produced in one area but falls in a different state or nation is called ____________.

transboundary pollution

Air pollutants that are formed when primary air pollutants react with one another or other chemicals in the air are called _________.

Secondary air pollutants

__________ enters the air directly from a readily identifiable source while __________ enters the air from dispersed or mobile sources

Point source pollution; nonpoint source pollution

Which of the following is a point source of air pollution?

Large, coal burning powerplant

Currently, __________ releases more carbon dioxide per person than any other country in the world.

The United States

Which of the following facilitate mitigation efforts on a national or global scale?

All the above

Which of the following factors that prevent migrating tree species from thriving in their new, more northerly habitats?

All of the above are factors

Since climatologists started keeping records in 1850, the warmest decade globally was:

2000 to 2010

Species have responded to global climate change in various ways. Which of the following is an example of how species have responded?

All the above

Shifts in the ranges of tree species due to climate change are called ____________.

Tree range migrations

A shift of only a few degrees Fahrenheit in the average global temperature will likely result in more frequent and extreme heat waves. Which of the following choices best describes this phenomenon?

Climate change

Which of the following greenhouse gases, per molecule, has the LEAST heat-trapping capacity?

Carbon dioxide

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding climate models?

Climate models that exclude anthropogenic factors are most accurate

Long-term Patterson trends of meteorological conditions in a given area refer to its __________.

climate

Potential effects of climate change likely include all the following EXCEPT ____________.

All of the above are possible

Deliberately thinning out paper birches in an effort to cultivate more oaks and white pines in Minnesota in light of massive paper birch die-offs is an example of ____________.

Resistance forestry

Further changes in global climate will have a significant effect on world forests. Global climate changes will impact both mean annual __________ and _______ which will cause shifts in tree populations.

Temperature ;precipitation

Which of the following factors has low albedo and contributes to warming?

asphalt

All of the following choices are evidence for the recent changes in global climate EXCEPT:

A single weather event like a hurricane

The actual temperature on any given day is the _________, while the range of expected values, based on location and time of year, is the __________.

Weather; climate

Which is FALSE regarding positive feedback loops?

They always indicate a "positive" or beneficial event.

Which of the following is TRUE regarding the greenhouse effect?

Increased levels of human-produced carbon dioxide have enhanced the greenhouse effect

Global climate change has had numerous effects on the Earth. Which of the following has been a result of global climate change?

uncoupling of community connections

Which of the following sources are NOT used to reconstruct past climate?

All the above

What could happen to the boreal forests of northern Minnesota within the next century?

All the above

Which of the following is NOT an aspect of climate

a few warmer days here and there

The meteorological conditions in a given place on a given day refer to its _________.

weather

Which of the following is FALSE regarding the Kyoto Protocol?

The protocol was signed by China and the United States.

Which of the following is an anthropogenic forcer?

fossil fuel combustion

Changes in global climate are predicted to have a negative impact on forests. Forests provide which of the following ecosystem services?

All the above

________ is/are anything that alters the balance of incoming solar radiation relative to the amount of heat that escapes out into space.

A radioactive forcer

_______ is the ability of a surface to reflect away solar radiation.

Albedo

Which of the following does NOT directly contribute to sea level rise?

Melting of sea ice

What is the name of the international group of scientists who evaluate scientific studies related to any aspect of climate change to give thorough and objective assessment of the data?

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Many climate scientists set the upper limit of carbon dioxide that we should not cross at 560 ppm. In 2011, the atmospheric concentration was 390 ppm. Unless dramatic changes are put into place, we will probably surpass the 560 ppm threshold before the en

All the above

Governmental fees imposed on activities that release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, usually on fossil fuel use, are called _________.

Carbon taxes (WRONG)

Accepting climate change as inevitable and adjusting as best as possible is referred to as __________.

Adaption

Efforts intended to minimize the extent or impact of climate change are referred to as ___________.

Mitigation

What is one criticism of nuclear energy development projects abroad?

Some methods of power generation create radioisotopes that can be used in weapons.

Spent fuel rods are one of the wastes associated with the production of nuclear energy. Spent fuel rods are classified as ________________.

HLRW

___________________ rods are used in a nuclear plant to absorb neutrons and regulate the speed of the fission chain reaction.

control

Accidents in the construction industry occur at a rate almost ____________________ the rate of those in the nuclear power industry.

Six times

____________________ provides the cleanest source of energy in terms of air emissions

nuclear

The time it takes for half of the radioactive isotopes in a sample to decay to a new form is known as its ___________________.

Radioactive half-life

_____________________ is energy released when an atom is split or combines with another to form a new atom.

Nuclear energy

___________________ is a nuclear reaction that occurs when a neutron strikes the nucleus of an atom and breaks it into two or more parts.

nuclear fission

High cancer rates are observed in workers who mine U-235 naturally decays into ______________.

radon

Which of the following choices could be composed of 92 protons and 146 neutrons?

Uranium-238

Congress authorized a controversial, long-term storage but construction was stopped for 15 years. What stopped the construction?

President Obama halted construction, though the problem and controversy remain

The heat released in a nuclear chain reaction is ________________ times more than what is released by burning coal or oil and is used to turn turbines that generate electricity.

1 trillion

Which of the following choices for an isotope represents the greatest production of druthers atoms?

5 half lives

Which statement about nuclear fission is NOT true?

Nuclear fission does not produce any heat

Why is u-235 used more in nuclear reactors than u-238?

u-235 is more reactive

The world saw some of the hazards of radioactivity after dropping the nuclear bomb in WWII. From this event, we saw an increase in all but which of the following?

Cardiovascular disease

Low-level radioactive waste ________________.

All the above

Compared to coal-fired plants, nuclear power plants are more ____________________.

Susceptible to natural disasters

Which of the following is NOT one of the causes of the high expense involved in nuclear power production?

Nuclear fuel is 3 times as expensive as fossil fuels

The first major nuclear accident was?

Three Mile Island

Nuclear power plants use ________ to boil water and produce steam, which is then used to generate electricity.

heat

Radioactive tailings are created in which step of the nuclear fuel production?

milling

A radioactive particle has done through 2 half-life's retains what percent of the parents material?

25%

The mass number for an element is composed of which of the following choices ___________.

Protons and neutrons

A cost and benefits analysis of all our energy resources must include which of the following?

All the above

Which of the following is emitted during radioactive decay?

Gamma radiation, heat, subatomic particles, and energy (All the above)

An atom that spontaneously emits subatomic particles and/or energy is called ___________.

radioactive

Isotopes are atoms that have different numbers of _________ in their nucleus but the same number of ________.

Neutrons; protons

Radiation that leaks from nuclear reactors ______________.

Is difficult to control

During radioactive decay, radioactive isotopes can give on which of the following?

All the above

Nuclear energy is considered to be a "clean energy" because of all but which of the following?

Less hot water is produced than by conventional power plants.

Atoms that have different numbers of neutrons in their nucleus but the same number of protons are known as ___________________.

Isotopes

Radioactive isotopes are important for producing electricity because ___________________.

The heat from their fission is used to create steam, which is converted to electricity

What is "Energy Star?

Both b and c (appliances and light bulbs)

Biomass is a renewable energy source. Why isn't the use of biomass sustainable?

Burning biomass releases gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect. (WRONG) All the above (?)

_____________________ energy is renewable and has a low environmental impact

Sustainable

How do geothermal power plants work?

They utilize steam released from hydrothermal reservoirs to spin turbines and produce electricity

Turning off lights when you leave a room or switching to CFL or LED lighting is an effective conservation method because lighting usually accounts for _______________ of average home electrical costs.

20%

Which renewable energy source has the greatest environmental footprint?

biomass

Which of the following choices are involved in wind turbine technology?

All the above

In 2010, what state in the United States had the largest wind farm?

Texas

Which statement about wind turbines' threat to birds is true?

Every year, domestic cats kill more birds than wind turbines

The 627 turbines of the largest wind farm in the United States are able to provide power for roughly how many homes?

230,000

Iceland uses geothermal energy to produce electricity and heat. Why didn't the people of Sams� choose this energy source?

It only works in areas close to hot zones or fault lines like Iceland is.

___________________ energy is replenished over short time scales or is perpetually available.

Renewable energy

What is the most expensive form of energy from an economic standpoint?

Geothermal (WRONG)

Which of the following choices converts the energy of the sun directly into heating?

Solar thermal systems

According to energy advisors, what produces the "greenest" kilowatt of electricity?

Wind turbines (WRONG)

The people of Samson discovered the best way to achieve energy independence is to ______.

conserve energy

Choose the energy source that is most renewable.

Biodiesel

What factors make wind energy imperfect as energy source?

All the above

Which of the following is NOT an example of passive solar technology?

Photovoltaic cells

What alternative energy resources did Samson choose to use in order to become a green community?

Solar, wind, and biomass

Criticisms of wind turbine technology include __________.

Their use is not sustainable (?)

Which of the following electricity energy sources is least expensive for the consumer?

Fossil fuels

What percentage of Samsa's electricity comes from renewable energy resources?

100%

The largest segment of renewable energy is ______.

biomass

Switching from incandescent bulbs to compact fluorescent (CFL) provides a two-fold benefit during the summer, why?

Both a and b (CFL bulbs use less energy & Incandescent bulbs produce excess heat)

_________ cells convert solar energy directly into electricity

Photovoltaic

A sustainable energy source has which of the following characteristics?

All the above

Geothermal power plants harness ________ released from hydrothermal reservoirs to spin turbines to produce electricity.

steam

How do run-of-river hydroelectric systems differ from giant dams?

They don't block all of the water flowing down a channel and only direct dome of it through the turbine

Wind turbines create electric energy by ______.

All the above

Sams�'s conversion to renewable energy has resulted in improved air quality on the island. Which of the following air pollutants has fallen to zero since Sams�'s switch to renewable energy sources?

Carbon dioxide

Which statement about solar energy is correct?

If just 4% of the world's desert were covered in photovoltaic cells, the world's electricity needs would be met. (WRONG)

________________ energy is the heat stored underground, contained in either rocks or fluids.

Geothermal

What makes solar energy an unreliable energy source?

Both B and C (Sunlight is intermittent, especially in high latitude locations & It has expensive start-up costs)

If every home in the United States replaced one incandescent bulb with a compact florescent bulb, _______.

It would be the greenhouse gas equivalent of removing 800,000 cars from the roads

Which of the following is NOT a driving habit that maximizes mileage?

WRONG avoiding carrying excess weight in the vehicle, WRONG keeping the car idling when parked briefly; avoiding turning the car on and off

All of the following are benefits of switching from corn ethanol to cellulosic ethanol EXCEPT:

WRONG the potential to circumvent the food controversy by not occupying land that could support food crops

While starch from corn is soft, cellulose in grasses is which of the following?

Complex, durable, and not easily degraded

Which of the following is an annual plant?

Corn

Cellulose is complex and difficult to break down. Which of the following is NOT a method currently being used to tear apart the strong chemical bonds in cellulose?

low temperatures

Which of the following is/are beneficial characteristics of using crops such as switch grass to produce celluloid ethanol?

All of the above

Which of the following is FALSE regarding biodiesel?

It can be used in both biodiesel and gasoline engines

Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using biofuel as an alternative energy source?

WRONG Biofuel can be rejected over short time scales, WRONG Crops for biofuel can be grown on marginal land

Which of the following is/are a way(s) to improve energy efficiency of vehicles ?

All of the above

________ refers to the process where a plant absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and then stores carbon in its roots.

Carbon sequestration

_________ are defined as solids, liquids, or gases that produce energy from biological material

Biofuels

Bioethanol that is produced by breaking down cellulose in plants is called ________.

Celluloid ethanol

Which of the following choices is FALSE regarding biodiesel production?

It is formed directly from its feedstock

All of the following are observed when switch grass is grown in a high-diversity mix of plant species of as a monoculture EXCEPT:

More fertilizer because plants are competing with each other

Which of the following is a waste that can be used to produce biofuel?

WRONG manure All the above (?)

Which of the following choices would NOT be considered a biofuel feedstock?

Beef from cows

Which of the following is the best option in terms of being environmentally friendly?

biking or walking to work, to school, or to run errands

Choose the form of biomass that is easiest to ferment into bioethanol?

corn

Globally, food crops are being displaced by biofuel crops. Crops that normally were grown for either human or animal consumption are instead being grown for fuel. This switch has resulted in price increases and food riots. Which of the following crops has

corn

Which of the following is/are a challenge(s) faced when making biofuel from algae?

The oil production facilities are expensive.

Although it is clear that alternative energy sources such as bioethanol and biodiesel are reducing fossil fuel usage, ___________ is also a key strategy to reducing our dependence on fossil fuels.

Conservation

Which of the following are correct regarding indirect biomass energy?

All the above

Which of the following is/are predicted to generate the most oil per acre in biodiesel production?

algae

_____________ is a term used to explain a biofuel disadvantage that reduces the contributions made from forests and grasslands to ecosystem services

Overharvesting

Which of the following is a benefit of growing diverse grasses for biofuel production?

All the above

Which of the following is an advantage of using biofuel?

If grown with minimal or no fossil fuel...

In 2007 Congress passed the ___________, which requires the United States to produce 36 billion gallons of renewable and alternative fuels per year by 2022.

Energy Independence and Security Act

Material from living or recently living organisms or their by-products is defined as _________.

Biomass

Biofuels currently provide about _______ of the energy used in the United States, more than any other type of renewable resource

4%

Ethanol can be produced from the biological fermentation of all of the following sources EXCEPT:

None of the above

Which of the following is/are TRUE regarding the increasing production of biofuels in the United States?

All the above

Which of the following is/are TRUE regarding the "food versus fuel" debate?

All the above

One way to improve energy return and reduce the amount of greenhouse gases typically released by traditional monoculture fuel crops is to use LIHD grassland plants. What does LIHD stand for?

Low input; high diversity

Which form(s) of biomass is/are burned directly for energy?

WRONG restaurant fry grease and firewood (Both B & C)

Which of the following are concerns regarding early corn ethanol projects?

All the above

Which of the following is/are beneficial characteristics of using crops such as switchgrass to produce cellulosic ethanol?

WRONG consumes less energy

Which of the following choices is commonly used in the United States to produce biodiesel?

Soybeans

Why does open space make a difference?

All the above

Urban areas are sometimes warmer than the surrounding countryside. This phenomenon is known as ___________________.

urban heat island effect

What is the population size generally considered as classifying a city as a "megacity?

10 million

A consequence of urban flight was suburban sprawl. Suburban sprawl is the conversion of rural areas into suburbs and ________________,

Exurbs

Which of the following statements is true about the world's population?

People are moving out of rural areas and into the cities

Which continent is expected to have the largest increase in the rate of urbanization in the near future?

Asia

Which of the following factors requires urban areas to use more fossil fuel than rural areas?

All the above

Advantages of urbanization for a society include ___________________.

lower energy impact per person due to smaller homes and less traveling

A "strong sense of place" is generally considered an important part of ____________________.

smart growth and sustainable development

Which of the following countries is projected to have a large increase in the rate of urbanization in the near future?

Both a & b (India and China)

________________ is defined as a slow conversion of rural areas into suburban and exurban ones.

suburban sprawl

Which of the following can we do to help prevent suburban sprawl?

All the above

Urban flight was made possible by mass transit and the _________________.

Automobile

Since it is projected that ________________ of future human population growth will occur in large cities, it is important that urban planners design cities that are environmentally friendly.

90%

In the 1960's urban flight resulted in many banks ruling certain sections of cities off-limits to any type of investment. This practice was called?

Redlining

All of the following are true about urban areas when compared to rural areas EXCEPT___________________.

None of the above

Which of the following is normally a consequence of urban/suburban sprawl?

All of the above

In the New York case study, the South Bronx handled __________________ percent of the entire city's waste.

40%

Which of the following is not normally found in the poorer districts of a city?

WRONG Sewage plants

Homes that are built father away from the urban centers of cities are normally _________________ and _________________ energy efficient than those found in urban centers.

Larger, less

Characteristics of a sustainable city are _______________.

local self-sufficiency is increased

Among a variety of groups with an interest in a sustainable future, an emerging consensus is that the future lies in ____________________.

cities and smart urban development

As more people migrate to the suburbs and exurbs, many cities have passed ______________ to create buffer zones between commercial and residential areas.

Zoning laws

Environmental justice is becoming more relevant as more people move to and live in cities. This migration has created imbalances among communities concerning their environmental burdens and benefits. Globally, more than ________________ people live in slu

1 billion

An early obstacle in environmental justice projects is often _____________________.

WRONG that waste sites in the neighborhood are harmful

The phenomenon of low-population-density development spread across the landscape is referred to as________________

Suburban sprawl

_____________________ is the migration of people to large cities.

Urbanization

The Cross Bronx Expressway was built accommodate urban flight, but it also brought a lot of issues. Which of the following is NOT one of those issues?

Commuting worsened

Densely populated regions that include cities and the suburbs that surround them are known as _________________.

Urban areas

The disadvantages of urbanization for a society include ___________________.

A higher rate of disease

The Bronx River was historically covered with ______________________.

Salt marshes

All of the following statements are true about the movement of the world's population EXCEPT _________________.

the rate of population growth has increased since the end of the 20th century

Why are parking garages considered part of the New Urbanism?

They are more compact than parking lots.

The movement to rejuvenate communities, improve the quality of life, and reduce ecological footprints using such strategies as establishing urban boundaries to preserve open space and directing development toward existing communities is referred to as ___

Smart growth