Exam 2

Binary Compounds

Composed of two elements, three types

Type 1 Binary Compounds

Made of alkaline or alkaline earth metals + a nonmetal, name isn't represented differently. Ex: NaCl = Sodium Chloride

Type 2 Binary Compound

Made of metals without knowing the charge + a nonmetal, name represented with cation containing roman numeral. Ex: FeO2 = Iron (IV) Oxide

Type 3 Binary Compound

Made of 2 nonmetals, charges don't apply. First element in formula is named first, second is named as an anion. Prefixes used to denote number of atoms, but mono- is never used on the first element if there's a single atom. Ex: N2O4 = Dinitrogen Tetroxide

Polyatomic Ions

Ions that contain more than one atom, where the bonded group of atoms share one charge.

NH4^+1

ammonium

NO2^-1

Nitrite

NO3^-1

Nitrate

SO3^-2

Sulfite

SO4^2-

Sulfate

HSO4^1-

Hydrogen Sulfate or Bisulfate

OH^1-

Hydroxide

CN^1-

Cyanide

PO4^3-

Phosphate

HPO4^2-

Hydrogen Phosphate

H2PO4^1-

Dihydrogen Phosphate

CO3^2-

Carbonate

HCO3^-1

Hydrogen Carbonate or Bicarbonate

ClO^1-

Hypochlorite

ClO2^1-

Chlorite

ClO3^1-

Chlorate

ClO4^1-

Perchlorate

C2H3O2^-1

Acetate

MnO4^-1

Permanganate

CrO7^2-

Dichromate

CrO4^2-

Chromate

O2^2-

Peroxide

Writing out formulas for compounds with polyatomic ions in it

Refer to the charges of the polyatomic ion and cation, and base if off of the naming binary compounds. Examples: Iron (II) Phosphate = Fe3(PO4)2, Calcium Sulfite = CaSO3.

How to figure out if a compound is an acid

Acids can be recognized by the presence of hydrogen at the beginning of the formula. Examples: HCl = Hydrochloric acid, HCN = Hydrocyanic Acid.

Naming acids rule #1

If the anion doesn't contain oxygen, the acid is given the prefix hydro- and the suffix -ic. Examples: HBr = Hydrobromic Acid, HI = Hydroiodic Acid.

Naming acids rule #2a

If the anion contains oxygen, the suffix -ic is added to the root name if the anion contains -ate. Ex: HNO3 = Nitric Acid.

Naming acids rule #2b

If the anion contains oxygen, the suffix -ous is added to the root name if the anion contains -ite. Ex: H2SO3 = Sulfurous Acid

Important Acids to know

HCl = Hydrochloric Acid
HNO3 = Nitric Acid
H2SO4 = Sulfuric Acid

How do we know if a chemical reaction has occured?

1. The color changes
2. A solid forms
3. Bubbles form
4.Heat and/or a flame is produced, or heat is absorbed.

What are the main components of a chemical reaction?

The reactants are on the left, the products are on the right, and each compound is represented by the form it takes (aq = aqueous, s = solid, l = liquid, g = gas).

Explain Dalton's atomic theory

All atoms present in the reactants must be present in the products, i.e. the Law of Conservation of Mass.

Balance:
NaBr + Cl2 ---> NaCl + Br2

2NaBr + Cl2 ---> 2NaCl + Br2

Balance:
NH4NO3 ---> N2 + O2 + H2O

2NH4NO3 ---> 2N2 + O2 + 4H20

Balance:
Cr2O3 + Mg ---> Cr + MgO

Cr2O3 + 3Mg ---> 2Cr + 3MgO

Balance:
CH4 + O2 ---> CO2 + H2O

CH4 + 2O2 ---> CO2 + 2H2O

Balance:
Mg(OH)2 + HCl ---> MgCl2 + H2O

Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl ---> MgCl2 + 2H2O

Balance:
H2SO4 + Pb(OH)4 ---> Pb(SO4)2 + H2O

2H2SO4 + Pb(SO4)2 + 4H2O

Balance:
CaCl2 + Na3PO4 ---> Ca(PO4)2 + NaCl

3CaCl2 + 2Na3PO4 ---> Ca3(PO4)2 + 6NaCl