Chapter 16.21 Canines


Elevation or peak on the incisal ridge

Cusp tip

How many cusp ridges/slopes are there and what are they called?

2; Mesial cusp ridge/slope and distal cusp ridge/slope

Connects to cusp tip; vertical prominence

Labial ridge

Where is labial ridge located?

Vertical and centrally placed on labial surface.

Location of cingulum on labial surface of maxillary canines


Centrally placed vertical elevation extending from cusp tip to cingulum

Lingual ridge

Number of fossae on lingual surface of canines


How many total canines are there in full adult dentition?


T/F: Permanent canines are not succedaneous

False; Permanent canines are succedaneous, as they replace primary canines.

Other names for canines

Cornerstones of dental arch, cuspids, eyeteeth and fangs

What are the numbers of permanent canines?

6, 11, 22 and 27

What are the functions of canines?

1. Pierce and tear food
2. Support incisors and premolars in their functions during mastication and speech
3. Serves as major support for facial muscles and keeps overall vertical dimension of face intact
4. Guideposts during occlusion
5. Protect against

T/F: Canines are least stable teeth in the permanent dentition

False; Canines are the most stable teeth in the dentition

Reasons that canines are the most stable teeth in the dentition

1. Long root length
2. Proximal root concavities help anchor them

T/F: Canines are usually the last teeth present in overall failing dentition


T/F: Canines (or many times just the roots) are often used to stabilize fixed and removable prosthetics in the mouth


Shape proximally


Shape labially/lingually

Pentagonal (5 sides)

T/F: Maxillary and mandibular canines do not resemble each other

False; Maxillary and mandibular canines resemble each other

T/F: Canines are more narrow LL than all incisors

False; Canines are even wider than maxillary central incisors

T/F: Canines are the shortest teeth in the permanent dentition

False; They are the longest teeth

Length of root of canine

Between 1 and 1.5x crown length

External manifestation of canine by vertically oriented and labially placed bony ridge

Canine eminence of alveolar process

Cause of cusp slope altering and wear that widens the incisal edges


T/F: Maxillary canines are longer and wider MD than maxillary centrals

False; Maxillary canines are similar in length or shorter than maxillary centrals as well as narrower MD

T/F: Canines have sharp apices

False; They have blunt apices

Maxillary canine direction of bend at root apex


Canine root depressions; Which is deeper?

Mesial and distal; Distal

Number of pulp canals in canines; pulp horns

1; 1

Canine root shape in cross section


Canine root taper direction

Towards lingual

T/F: Maxillary canines have imbrication lines and perikymata


T/F: Canines have mamelons

False; They do not have mamelons, they have a notch on cusp ridges

How many lobes do maxillary canines have?


Which lobe forms the labial ridge?

The middle lobe

T/F: Labial ridge is more prominent on mandibular than maxillary canines

False; More prominent on maxillary

What does mesial half of canine resemble?

Part of incisor

What does distal half of canine resemble?

Part of premolar

Which canines have more developed, larger and sharper cusp tips?


Which cusp slope is longer on maxillary canines?

Distal cusp slope

Where is depression located near CEJ on maxillary canines?

Between CEJ and distal contact

Location of mesial contact on maxillary canines

Junction of incisal and middle thirds

Location of distal contact on maxillary canines

Middle third (is most cervical contact of all anterior teeth)

T/F: Lingual surface is wider than labial surface of canines

False; Lingual surface is narrower

T/F: Mandibular canines have more prominent lingual features

False; Maxillary lingual features are more prominent

Which marginal ridge is longer on canines?

Mesial marginal ridge

What does the lingual ridge do?

Separates the two lingual fossae

What are the names of the lingual fossae?

Mesiolingual fossa and distolingual fossa

T/F: CEJ curves higher incisally on mesial than distal surface on canines


Where is height of contour located on labial and lingual surfaces of canines?

Cervical third

T/F: Labial and lingual height of contour is more prominent on mandibular canines than maxillary

False; More prominent on maxillary canines

Reasons canines appear darker than other anterior teeth

1. Their shape allows less light to bounce off of them
2. They are thicker so less light can penetrate and illuminate them

T/F: From incisal view, crown outline of maxillary canines is symmetrical

False; It is asymmetrical as the mesial part of the crown has greater LL bulk

From incisal view, which half of labial outline is more concave on maxillary incisors?


From incisal view, which half of lingual outline is more concave on maxillary canines and what is the reason?

Distal, because distal fossa is deeper and more pronounced

Which canines can have two roots (labial/lingual)?


Which canines are usually straight at apex?


T/F: Mesial root depressions on maxillary canines are more pronounced and deeper than those on mandibular canines

False; Mandibular mesial root depressions are more pronounced and deeper

Which canines have root depressions that are so pronounced they can create facial and lingual components in the apical third, giving the tooth a double rooted appearance?


Which canines are narrower LL and MD?


T/F: Cusp tips are more obtuse and blunted on maxillary canines

False; More obtuse and blunted on mandibular canines

In which direction do mandibular canine crowns appear to be bent?


Labial surface of which canines appear more rounded?


Which cusp slope is shorter on mandibular canines?

Mesial cusp slope

T/F: Mesial cusp slope of mandibular canines is close to horizontal


T/F: Distal contour of mandibular canines is almost flat and nearly in line with root contour

False; Mesial contour is nearly flat and nearly in line with root contour

T/F: Distal contour of mandibular canines is convex in the cervical third and concave in the incisal two-thirds

False; Distal contour is concave in cervical third and convex in incisal two-thirds

Mesial contact of mandibular canines

Incisal third and more incisal than that of maxillary canines

Distal contact of mandibular canines

At junction of middle and incisal third

Location of cingulum on labial surface of mandibular canines

Distal to mid-root axis line

T/F: Labial contour on mandibular canines is so minimal that the root and crown contours appear to be continuous