Nursing 203

Katie's 9-month-old son Jason sucks and chews on just about everything he finds�toys, books, fingers, and so forth. According to psychoanalytic theory, Jason is in the:


Rachel is a young child who has been given a vaccination each time she has been to the doctor's office. She now starts to scream and cry each time she sees the doctor's office building. According to the principles of classical conditioning, she is screami

has learned to associate the building with the pain she feels when she gets a shot.

Social learning theory emphasizes learning through:

observation and imitation.

Piaget's theory of development focused primarily on:

how our thinking changes as we grow older.

Developmentalists' argument over the relative importance of hereditary and environmental influences is called the:

nature-nurture controversy.

In Erik Erikson's theory:

developmental challenges continue throughout adulthood.

According to Erikson, an infant experiences:

trust vs mistrust

Cognitive theories emphasize the:

development of thought processes and their effect on behavior.

A purpose of a developmental theory is:

to offer insight into practical guidance to parents, teachers, and therapists

The life-span approach:

examines the links between childhood and adulthood

The notion that development involves gains and losses that do not always occur in a straight line exemplifies the following characteristic of the life-span approach.

multi directional

The study of human development is often divided into three domains:

biosocial, cognitive, and psychosocial.

Socioeconomic status refers to an individual's:

social class

An ecological-systems approach to the study of human development was recommended by:

Urie Bronfenbrenner.

Identify a major characteristic of human development emphasized in the life-span approach:


Every normal human body cell contains how many chromosomes?

23 pairs

a genome is :

the entire packet of instructions that make a living organism.

A person's sex is determined by:

23rd pair of chromosomes

phenotype refers to:

the actual expression of traits such as appearance and behavior.

People with Down syndrome:

have a third chromosome on the 21st pair

The four dimensions of parenting style are warmth, discipline, communication, and:

expectations for maturity

Authoritarian parents:

seem aloof from their children

A family's structure is likely to change over time because of:


Compared with single-parent homes, two-parent homes usually have:

higher income

The "age of viability" refers to the point when the preterm newborn:

can survive

a teratogen is:

a substance or a condition that can increase the risk of prenatal abnormalities.

Since genes are known to affect the chance of neural-tube defects, pregnant women are urged to begin taking vitamins with folic acid:

before becoming pregnant

The best policy regarding prescription drugs during pregnancy is:

take drugs only if medically necessary, prescribed by a knowledgeable doctor

The normal length of pregnancy is:

38-40 weeks

When a certain teratogen is relatively harmless in small doses but becomes harmful once exposure reaches a certain level is:

threshold effect

Once the fetus has developed to a point that it can survive outside the uterus, it has reached the age of:


The five characteristics that are evaluated in the Apgar are:

heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes.

Postpartum depression occurs:

In approximately 10-20% of postpartum women

The second stage of labor begins when the:

when the cervix is 10 cm dilated

The baby is born at the end of:

second stage of labor

Infants born more than three weeks early are called:


Cesarean births:

Increase maternal and fetal complications after birth

In a first birth, the average length of active labor is:

about 12-18 hours

Which of the following statements about breastfeeding is false?
breastfeeding is recommended for even preterm infants
breast-feeding is recommended for almost all mothers and babies.
scientific improvements make bottle-feeding an equally sufficient way to

scientific improvements make bottle-feeding an equally sufficient way to feed babies when compared to breast feeding.

Virtually all international health organizations recommend that infants should be fed only breast milk for the first:

4-6 months

Normally, during birth:

head emerges first

Babies considered small for their gestational age (SGA):

weigh less than expected, given the length of pregnancy.

A cluster of birth defects, including abnormal facial characteristics, slow physical growth, and retarded mental development is associated most closely with which of the following?

fetal alcohol syndrome

A condition characterized by difficulties in movement and speech that results from genetic vulnerability and anoxia during birth is:

cerebral palsy

Newborns can focus best on:


The average child can walk well unassisted at about:

12 months

The difference between gross and fine motor skills is whether they:

involve bigger or smaller muscles

Research on SIDS has shown that babies should be:

put to sleep on their backs

Infants' repetition of certain syllables at the age of about 6 or 7 months is called:


All of the following are correct about the usual language milestones for an infant except:
Naming explosion usually occurs about 18 months.
Nouns are the most frequent words during naming explosion.
Babbling usually starts about 4 months.
Holophrase is a

Babbling usually starts about 4 months.

At 6 months, Andrew is finally able to sit up unsupported. Probably Andrew is:

healthy infant

At 6 weeks of age, the infant is capable of:

social smile

A process that stimulates the body's immune system to resist a particular disease is called:


Piaget's cognitive development period that begins at birth and ends around age 2 is called:

sensorimotor intelligence

If we place a dot of rouge on an 18-month-old's nose and stand the child in front of a mirror, she may then touch her nose. This shows that the child has some:


The first "crisis of life," according to Erikson, is:

trust vs. mistrust

A sign of secure attachment is:

using the caregiver as a base for exploration.

Separation anxiety:

emerges at about the 9th month

Coordinated interaction between caregiver and infant is called:


Tony who is 18 months old, is at the 50th ___________ for height. This means that half of 18 month old toddler boys are above him and then half of them rank lower than he does.


Michael was subjected to much stress as an infant due to repeated episodes of family violence. As an adult, he is incapable of normal stress responses because stress hormones in his brain were:


The area in the brain that plans, anticipates, and controls impulses is the last part of the brain mature. This area is the:

prefrontal cortex

__________ is mental processing of information that arrives at the brain from the sensory organs.


As infants acquire language, they say more ______ than any other parts of speech.


Elaine communicates with her new baby in child-directed speech also known as:


The first two-word sentences appear, on the average, at:

21 months

A baby searches the faces of her parents to see how to respond in unfamiliar situations. This is called:

social referencing

An enduring emotional bond between people is known as:


Infant day care is of high quality if caregivers emphasize, among other things:

sensorimotor exploration

The autonomy versus shame and doubt crisis involves the child:

trying to rule his or her own actions.

When a baby is upset because a caregiver is leaving, the baby is exhibiting:

separation anxiety

The gross motor skill most likely to be mastered by 90% of infants at age 14 months is:
Creeping and crawling
Reaching out and holding onto an object
Grabbing an object with thumb and forefinger


Twelve-month old Christopher's language development is average. He is likely to:
be laughing
be babbling
have spoken his first words
use two-word sentences

have spoken his first words

At what age does a child have self-awareness, such as recognizing themselves in a mirror?
10 months
12 months
18 months
20 months

18 months

At what age does a child experience a conflict of autonomy vs. shame and doubt?
9 months
12 months
2 years
5 years

2 years

According to Erickson's theory, we should expect children that are in the autonomy vs. shame and doubt stage to:
learn trust through their needs for food, comfort, and attention.
want self-rule over their own actions and bodies.
be reluctant to give up su

want self-rule over their own actions and bodies.

Daniel says, "Cookie" to mean, "I want a cookie". The use of the single word is an example of:
universal grammar
naming explosion
a holophrase


An infant searches the faces of his/her parents to see how to respond in unfamiliar situations. This is called:
Separation anxiety
Social referencing
Stranger anxiety

Social referencing

A sign of secure attachment is:
smiling at mother when she returns to the room.
crying and not being comforted when mother comes back.
ignoring mother when she returns to the room
being reluctant to leave mother to play with new toys

smiling at mother when she returns to the room.

Piagets cognitive development period that begins at birth and ends around age 2 is called:
Primary circular reaction
Sensorimotor intelligence
Preopertational thought
Object permanence

Sensorimotor intelligence

The ability to control one's impulsiveness appears to be directly related to the development of the:

prefrontal cortex

Preoperational intelligence differs from sensorimotor intelligence in that preoperational intelligence:

goes beyond senses and motor skills.

An angry 5-year-old might stop herself from hitting another child, because she has developed:

emotional regulation.

Primary prevention is described as:

actions that prevent an unwanted circumstance.

Children who eat more dark green and orange vegetables:

gain bone mass

Humans have developed superior intellectual capabilities due to maturing executive function which is supported by the prefrontal cortex. Young children (2-6 years) show this in the following ways:
A. emotions become more responsive.
B. temper tantrums inc

D. Both A and C

The long band of nerve fibers that connects the brain's hemispheres is:

the corpus collosum.

Vygotsky's theory includes the idea of:

children seeking out "mentors".

An example of a tertiary prevention is:

taking a child away from parents who have repeatedly abused her.

This correlates with peer acceptance and a health self-concept.

active social play

Identify different components of authoritative parenting. (Select all that apply)
A. moderate discipline.
B. strict, often physical discipline.
C. low expectations of maturity.
D. rules can be flexible.

A and D

A child's understanding of male-female differences is called gender schema.


Empathy leads to compassion and:

prosocial behavior

Roderick hits or kicks Edwin on the playground nearly every day. He also encourages other children to laugh at Edwin's attempts to kick a ball. Roderick is using ___________ against Edwin.

bullying aggression

Intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 years of age is considered __________.

child maltreatment

Most preschool children cannot tie their shoelaces because:
A. lateralization is not yet complete.
B. their fingers are too small and thin.
C. the corpus collosum is immature.
D. all of the above.

D. all the above

Centration and preoperational thought are important terms offered by:
A. Vygotsky
B. Skinner
C. Piaget
D. Kohlberg

C. Piaget

Mia is a 4-year-old who tells her mother over and over that her daddy is her daddy and NOT mommy's husband. This is an example of:
A. Egocentrism
B. Static reasoning
C. Centration
D. Conservation

C. Centration

Piaget termed a particular type of centration in which the child thinks about the world only from their perspective is:
A. Static reasoning
B. Egocentrism
C. Irreversibility
D. Conservation

B. egocentrism

Kindra, age 3, is very particular about her daily routines. She is challenged while playing with siblings and friends especially when she is tired, often with melt-downs during games. She still struggles with impulse control and frustration. Developmental

A. emotional regulation

One of the most important ways in which children learn to regulate their emotions is through:
A. Singing songs
B. parent discipline
C. reading books
D. playing with other children

D. playing with other children

All of the following are true about imaginary friends EXCEPT:
A. They are most common in 6-8-year-olds.
B. Up to 65% of preschool children have them.
C. They are helping the child to try out new behaviors with a toy or pretend friend.
D. May help with emo

A. They are most common in 6-8-year-olds.

At what age do children run, jump, and tie their shoes?
A. 3 years
B. 4 years
C. 6 years
D. 7 years

C. 6 years

You are babysitting for children 6 and 3 years old. You make them lunch and put bananas on the peanut butter sandwich. The 3-year-old has a tantrum and says his mom doesn't make the sandwich with bananas but jelly. You say, "no problem let's just take the

D. Irreversibility

A 3-year-old is likely to believe that the same amount of ice cream is actually more when it is transferred from a large bowl to a small bowl. What concept is this child struggling with?
A. Overregularization
B. Centration
C. Conservation
D. Irreversibili

C. Conservation

One of the most encouraging principles of the life-span perspective is when human traits can be molded during development is called
A. durability
B. flexibility
C. plasticity
D. continuity

C. plasticity

The network of nerves that connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain and helps to coordinate functions that involve both sides of the brain is referred to as
A. Myelin
B. Corpus callosum
C. Cortex
D. Hemispheric coordination

B. Corpus callosum

What part of the brain has to do with planning and impulsivity?
A. hippocampus
B. Pre-frontal cortex
C. Limbic system
D. Parietal lobes

B. Pre-frontal cortex

When do children begin to understand some of the rules of grammar when talking?
A. 3 years
B. 5 years
C. 6 years
D. 8 years

A. 3 years

What is the term for the intellectual arena of skills that are both cognitive and behavioral that a person can learn with assistance?
A. Scaffolding
B. Zone of Proximal Learning
C. Executive functioning
D. Theory of mind

B. Zone of Proximal Learning

At what age does a child have self-awareness, such as recognizing themselves in a mirror?
A. 8 months
B. 12 months
C. 18 months
D. 20 months

C. 18 months

Your friend advised you that your child's grocery-store temper tantrums continue to occur because you are reinforcing the behavior. What theory has influenced your friend's thinking?
A. psychoanalytic
B. behaviorism
C. sociocultural
D. epigenetic

B. behaviorism (skinner)

The four dimensions of parenting style are warmth, discipline, communication, and:
A. Expectations of maturity
B. Trust
C. Physical contact
D. Supportiveness

A. Expectations of maturity

Regarding family outcomes which has the most impact?
A. Family structure
B. Family mobility
C. Family finances
D. Family function

D. Family function

What is the term for the level of teratogen exposure that becomes harmful once it reaches a certain level?
A. Couvade
B. Behavioral teratogen
C. Threshold effect
D. Viability effect

C. Threshold effect

The embryonic stage is:
A. the most critical period of development.
B. when organogenesis takes place.
C. stage from 2-16 weeks.
D. Both a and b.

D. Both a and b.

Who is the theorist focused on family systems theory?
A. Freud
B. Piaget
C. Erickson
D. Bowen

D. Bowen

What age does a child experience a conflict of autonomy vs. shame and doubt?
A. 6 months
B. 9 months
C. 2 years
D. 5 years

C. 2 years

At what age would you expect an average child to have started to talk with at least single words?
A. 8 months
B. 12 months
C. 18 months
D. 20 months

B. 12 months

At what age do children run, jump and tie their shoes?
A. 3 years
B. 4 years
C. 6 years
D. 7 years

C. 6 years

What kind of parenting style has been identified as supporting family function in the most positive way for the growth and development of the children in a family?
A. Permissive
B. Neglectful or indifferent
C. Authoritarian
D. Authoritative

D. Authoritative

What age would Erikson say a person experiences a developmental crisis called identity vs role confusion?
A. Teenage years
B. 65 years and older
C. 19-26 years
D. Middle aged adults

A. Teenage years

You can expect that a 7 pound newborn who develops normally will be _____ pounds at 4 months and _____ pounds at 1 year of age.
A. 20; 30
B. 18; 32
C. 14; 21
D. 14; 32

C. 14; 21