Theology quiz 2


Biblical Studies

Ultimate source of Christian theology is the bible.
Our main source of information for Jesus's life, ministry, early church.

The Six approaches to Theology

1. Biblical studies
2. Systematic Theology
3. Philosophical Theology
4. Historical Theology
5. Pastoral Theology
6. Spirituality/Mystical Theology

Systematic Theology

The study of God in a logical, methodical order

Philosophical Theology

finding the common ground between christian faith and other areas of intellectual activity.

Historical Theology

Development of points of doctrine through time

Pastoral Theology

trains people to minister to communities of faith through activities like preaching, teaching, spiritual direction, and counseling and advocacy for persons in need

Spirituality (Mystical Theology)

the mystical ascent of the soul to God.

The Four Natural Heresies



Jesus a mere human


Jesus only appears human


humanity is capable of salvation on their own


salvation is impossible

Heresy is

to deny the fundamental principle of the Christian faith"
A faulty understanding of core Christian beliefs.

The distinctive idea of Christianity

The Christian understanding of the nature of God must be such that God can effect the redemption of humanity through Christ.
The Christian understanding of the identity of Christ must be such that God can bring about our redemption through him, and him al

Walter Bauer (19th century)

Claimed :
Heresy was "actually the popular opinion"
Bauer's theories don't hold water


right belief

Arguments For A Committed Theologian

If something is true then ought one not be committed?
Pre-commitment - no one is really "detached"
Theology arises in response to the faith of a community.

Arguments for a Neutral Theologian

Question of Prolegomena - Where do we begin?


The things that need to said before the study of theology

Arguments for a Neutral Theologian- Schleiermacher

we rely upon the human dependence of god

Arguments for a Neutral Theologian- Paul Tillich

Who am I? What does it mean to exist? To answer this we must look at the Christian message

Arguments for a Neutral Theologian- Karl Barth

If God is going to reveal himself he will do it without any other human needed.

Arguments for a Neutral Theologian- Karl Rahner

Once we realize the diving we have some attachment to the We can begin to understand it's presence

Saint Justin [the] Martyr (100-165 C.E.)

Gospel reflected in Nature
Main difficulty - truths of Christianity become equated with classical culture.

Tertullian (160-225 C.E.)

Christianity must remain distinct.
Rejection of every aspect of "pagan" culture.
Main difficulty - denied Christian access to the intellectual/cultural heritage used for teaching (e.g., rhetoric)

Saint Augustine of Hippo (354 - 430 C.E.)

Pagan culture contains divine truths.
If its good to the service of the gospel...
Divine truths "are prostituted to demons.

H. Richard Niebuhr (1951)

Christ against Culture - total separation
Christ of Culture - attempts to bring culture and Christianity together.
Christ above Culture - relates the questions of culture with Christian answers.
Christ and Culture in Paradox - living in tension with cultu

Three different theological approaches to the issue of the relation of community of faith to the New Testament.

The Church has Authority over Scripture
Scripture has Authority over the Church
The Church and the Bible

Theology is a rational discipline

Christian faith is fundamentally rational

Theology is the republication of the insights of reason

If faith is rational, it must be capable of being deduced in its entirety by reason.

Theology is redundant

Reason has a right to judge religion.

Textual Criticism

Seeks to establish the wording of the biblical text as the biblical authors wrote it.

Historical Criticism

Understands the world behind the biblical text.

Source Criticism

Where is the pre-existing material and how is it used by the author.

Liberation Theology (Black Theology).

The lived experience of the marginalized and how biblical texts illuminate their present situation.

Feminist Theology

Exposes the male-centered assumptions of the cultures in the bible and challenges interpreters to recognize the liberating contributions of women to the biblical story of salvation.


- "handing down" or "handing on." A body of teaching


- in the negative sense, human ideas and practices not divine authorized.

Traditionalism -

the rigid adherence to moral formulations in such a way that it ignores true morality and piety

why Tradition is different

the living faithfulness of the church to the faith which it expresses. Implies not just something handing down, but an active process of reflection


The approach to philosophy that focuses on conscious experience (phenomenology), free will, the meaning of life, and other basic questions of existence.


God is a watchmaker; The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws.

Enlightenment Rationalism

Stressed human kinds inherent goodness rather than its depravity and encouraged a belief in social progress and the promise of individual perfectibility

criticism of Enlightenment Rationalism

(Religious) Experience
An accumulated body of knowledge arising through first-hand encounters with life.
An inward, subjective, knowledge

religious experience

Noetic quality

Inauthentic Existence

Unredeemed existence

Authentic Existence

Redeemed existence

four models of revelation