Chapter 3

Define psychodynamic theory

a view that explains personality in terms of conscious and unconscious forces, such as unconscious desires

Who founded the psychodynamic theory?

Sigmund Freud

What are the 8 key concepts of psychodynamic theory?

the id, ego, superego, libido, fixation, defense mechanisms, Oedipus complex, and Electra complex


the primitive psychic force hidden in the unconscious. It represents the basic needs and drives on which other personality factors are built


is the rational component of the mind. It begins to develop through experience, shortly after birth. The ego controls a person's thinking and acts as the coordinator of personality


Normally developed between the ages of 3 and 5, it consists of traditional values and mores of society that are interpreted to a child by the parents. The superego's main function is to determine whether something is right or wrong.


Energy of the id's biological instincts. This energy was primarily conceived as being sexual energy.


a person's personality development was largely, though not completely, halted at a particular stage.

Defense Mechanism

involves any unconscious attempt to adjust to conditions that are painful.

Oedipus complex

Freud believed boys encounter a dilemma between the ages of 3 and 5 where they fall sexually in love with their mother. He believes that the boy is antagonistic towards his father whom he views his father as a rival for his mother's affection.

Electra complex

Freud believed girls (between the ages of 3 and 5) fall sexually in love with their father and view their mother with antagonism.

Freuds's 5 stages of psychosexual development are:

Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages.

Define Freud's oral stage:

This phase extends from birth to approximately 18 months. It is called oral because the primary activities of a child are centered around feeding and the organs associated with that function. People fixated at this stage were thought to have severe person

Define Freud's anal stage

Between the ages of 18 months and 3 years, a child's activities are mainly focused on giving and withholding, primarily connected with retaining and passing feces. People fixated at this stage have such character traits as messiness, stubbornness, rebelli

Define Freud's Phallic stage

From ages 3-5, the child's attention shifts to the genitals. Prominent activities are pleasurable sensations from genital stimulation, showing off one's body, and looking at the bodies of others. Character traits that are apt to develop from fixation at t

Define Freud's Latency stage

This stage usually begins at the time when the Oedipus/Electra complexes are resolved and ends with puberty. The sexual instinct is relatively unaroused during this stage. The child can now be socialized and become involved in the education process and le

Define Freud's Genital stage:

This stage, which occurs from puberty to death, involves mature sexuality. The personal reaching this state is fully able to love and to work. Freud emphasized hard work and believed it was very important part of life in addition to being necessary to att

What are 3 criticisms of Freud's theory?

Three criticisms of Freud's theory is that it lacks supportive research, poor clarity of ideas, and fails to adequately address the status of women.

What is the neo Freudian psychoanalytic theory?

Sigmund Freud 's psychoanalytic theory argues that human behavior is the result of the interactions among three component parts of the mind: the id, ego, and superego.

Who are the 4 primary theorist of neo Freudian psychoanalytic theory?

Carl Jung, Erich Fromm, Alfred Adler, and Harry Stack Sullivan

What is Jung's theoretical emphasis?

analytic psychology

What is Fromm's theoretical emphasis?

Social context

What is Adler's theoretical emphasis?

individual psychology

What is Sullivan's theoretical emphasis?

individual personality development based on interpersonal relationships.

The Self-Theory by Carl Rogers is an example of what type of theoretical approach?

It is an example of a phenomenological approach.

Self Theory emphasis 6 key concepts. List those concepts.

self-concept, self-actualization, need for positive regard, sense of self-regard, real self, deal self, and incongruence.

Define the self concpet of self theory

a person's perception of and feelings about him or herself, including his or her personality, strengths weaknesses, and relationships with others.

Define the self-actualization of self theory

the tendency for every person to develop capacities that serve to maintain or enhance the person

Define the need for positive regard of self theory

the learned perception of self-worth that is based on the perceived attention and esteem received from others.

Define the real self of self theory

the person one actually is

Define the ideal self of self theory

the person one would like to be.

Feminist Theory is based on what?

This theory is based on the concept of feminism and the basic themes involved in that definition.

Feminist theory reflects one theoretical concept -is that statement true or false? Why?

This statement is false, there are 9 theoretical concepts.

List the 9 underlying principles of feminist Theory.

1. elimination of false dichotomies
2. rethinking knowledge
3. differences exist in male and female experiences throughout the life span
4. egalitarianism
5. empowerment
6. valuing process equally with product
7. the personal is political
8. Unity and div

List and define 5 diverse theories of feminist theory.

1. Liberal Feminism
2. Cultural feminism
3. Marxist or Socialist Feminism
4. Radical feminism
5. Postmodern feminism

Liberal Feminism

holds that women should have opportunities and rights equal to those of men

Cultural feminism

argues that women have special, unique qualities that differentiate them from men

Marxist or Socialist Feminism

views the oppression of women as just one instance of oppression, women being downgraded as one of various classes of people devalued by a capitalistic society

Radical feminism

perceives liberal feminism and cultural feminism as entirely too optimistic about the sources of women's oppression and the changes needed to end it.

Postmodern feminism

is not focused on social action, but rather is an academic movement that seeks to reform though and research within colleges and universities.

What is critical thinking? Why is critical thinking important when evaluating the theoretical application of different theories of development in social work?

Determining theories; relevance to social work involves evaluating each theory's application to client situations, the research supporting the theory, the extent to which the theory coincides with social work values and ethics, and the existence and valid

What are 3 important concepts related to diversity and psychological theories?

Important concepts are worldview, spirituality, and the strengths perspective

What are the 4 stages of Piaget's theory of Cognitive Development?

The four stages are the sensorimotor period, the preoperational thought period, the period of concrete operations, and the period of formal operations.

Define the 12 concepts of Piaget's theory of cognitive development.

1. Conservation
2. Schema
3. Adaptation .
4. Assimilation
5. Accommodation
6. Object permanence.
7. Representation
8. Egocentrism
9. Centration
10. Irreversibility
11. Classification
12. Seriation


The idea that a substance can be changed in one way while remaining the same in another


Ways of thinking about and organizing ideas and concepts depending on one'es level of cognitive development


refers to the capacity to adjust to surrounding environmental conditions.


refers to the taking in of new information and the resulting integration into the schema or structure of thought.


refers to the process by which children change their perceptions and actions in order to think using higher, more abstract levels of cognition.

Object permanence

occurs during the sensorimotor period. Children immediately forget about objects as soon as they no longer can perceive them.


the visual imagining of an image in their minds which allows them to begin solving problems


A child is unable to see things from anybody else's point of view.


refers to a child's tendency o concentrate on only one detail of an object or situation and ignore all other aspects.


refers to a child's ability to follow and think something through in one direction without being able to imagine the relationship in reverse.


refers to a child's ability to sort items into various categories according to certain characteristics.


refers to a child's ability to arrange objects in order according to certain characteristics.

What are 3 criticisms of Piaget's theory?

The 3 criticisms of Piaget's theory are the fact that it was based on observations of his own children, its focus on the "average child," and its limited consideration of other dimensions of human development.

Define Information Processing Theory of cognitive development.

It proposes that human cognition consists of mental hardware and mental software.

What are key concepts of cognitive development?

Attention, Memory, and information processing strategies such as repetition, organization, and elaboration.

Who is Vygotsky? What type of theory did he propose?

Vygotsky was a Russian psychologist and he proposed a theory of sociocultural cognitive development emphasizing how children develop differently depending on the social and cultural circumstances and expectations evident in their environment.

In Vygotsky's theory how do children learn?

In Vygotsky's theory, children learn as they interact with and observe others framing their development with the use of language

What are the key concepts of Vygotsky's theory?

Important concepts include the zone of proximal development, scaffolding, and private speech.

What are 2 positive aspects of Vygotsky's theory?

Positive aspects of the theory include the appreciation of diversity and the potential for individuals to promote their own cognitive development.

What are 2 criticisms of his theory?

Criticisms include its neglect of aspects of learning other than verbal and its inattentiveness to the biological side of development.

Do cultural values effect the development of temperament? Why?

Yes, cultural values effect the development of temperament because a major variable related to overall adjustment may be the "goodness" or "poorness" of fit between the individual and the impinging environment.

What is secure attachment?

Infants who have a secure attachment actively explore their environment and interact with strangers while their mothers are present.

What is Emotional Development?

Emotional development involves learning what feelings and motions are, understanding how and why they happen, recognizing one's own feelings and those of others, and developing effective ways of managing them.

What is Anxious-avoidant attachment?

Infants who show an anxious-avoidant attachment avoid contact with their mothers during the reunion segment following separation or ignore that their mothers will not be there when needed.

Anxious -resistant Attachment

Infants who show an anxious resistant attachment are very cautious in the presence of the stranger.

Disorganized Attachment

In the disorganized attachment, babies responses are particularly notable in the reunion sequence.

What are cross cultural differences in attachment?

Some cross cultural differences in attachment examples are that Canadian mothers were much more punitive and overprotective in orientation with shy children, whereas Chinese mothers supported and encourage introverted behavior.


Empowerment is strengthening one's self-concepts and enhancing their self-esteem, especially for those with exceptionally low self-esteem.


Self-concept is the personal impression of one's own unique attributes and traits, both positive and negative.


Self-esteem is a person's judgment of his or her own value.

What are the two type of Intelligence per Cattell?

Two types would be fluid and crystallized

Sternberg's Triarchic theory of intelligence states? What 3 elements are emphasized in this theory?

It proposes that people may display more or less analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence.

The Stanfird-Binet and the Wechsler ___________ Scales are what type of tests?

Wechsler Intelligence Scales and The Stanfird-Binet are IQ tests

Giftedness involves ___________, _____________ and _________________ abilities?

It involves analytic, synthetic, and practical abilities.

Name 3 concerns with intelligence testing.

3 concerns with intelligence testing is cultural bias, placing labels on people may become self-fulfilling prophecies, and the test do not take motivation into account.

Intellectual disability is characterized by what?

It is characterized by intellectual functioning that is significantly below average and accompanying deficits in adaptive functioning, both of which occur before reaching adulthood.

List the 6 problem areas for people with intellectual disabilities.

The six problems are:
1. Attention
2. Memory
3. Language development
4. Self-regulation
5. Motivation
6. Social development

What is ADA?

It is the Americans with Disabilities Act.

What are 3 macro systems responses to persons with intellectual disabilities?

Macro responses include deinstitutionalization, community-based services, and the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Why is empowerment important to people with intellectual disabilities?

Empowerment is important because people with disabilities are capable, have potential, and are important members of society.

What are 3 characteristics of learning disabilities?

Characteristics include cognitive, academic, or social/emotional aspects.

Define Learning disabilities.

Learning disabilities involve a heterogeneous group of neurological disorders resulting in perceptual processing problems in learning to read, communicate verbally, understand math, perceive social interactions, use motor skills, or maintain memory.

In what psychological ways might children with learning disabilities be affected?

They might be affected in ways such as learned helplessness, low self-esteem, and lack of social competence.

What does IDEA stand for? What is it?

The IDEA stands for The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act and it has expanded educational opportunities for children with learning and other disabilities.

List 5 other disabilities that a person may have. Can you have only one disability?

5 other disabilities are:
1. Autistic spectrum disorder
2. Cerebral palsy
3. Hearing problems
4. Vision impairment
5. Epilepsy
People may have concurrent disabilities.

What does ADHD stand for? ADD? What is it?

ADHD stands for Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and it is a syndrome of learning and behavioral problems beginning in childhood that is characterized by a persistent inattention, excessive physical movement, and impulsivity occurring before age 1

List 2 treatments for ADHD.

Two treatments may involve medical drugs and/or family intervention and special treatment.