Biology I Ch 3 Review Questions


(3.1) List the concepts of the cell theory.

-the cell is the structural units of all living things
-cells perform all the functions of living things
-new cells come from the reproduction of existing cells

(3.1) Describe how the surface area of a cell can influence the maximum size a cell might attain.

as a cell grows larger, the surface area is no longer able to consume enough nutrients to support the cell

(3.1) Trace the development of the modern cell theory, listing, scientists and what they contributed to the theory.

-1665, Robert Hooke's Micrographia, cork cells
-1833, Robert Brown, nucleus
-1838, Matthias Schleiden, plants
-1839, Theodor Schwann, animals
-1855, Rudolf Virchow, cells from other cells

(3.2) Why is it accurate to describe a unicellular organism as both simple and complex?

It is one cell which makes it simpler than most organisms, but it still has complex functions and structures within it

(3.2) Explain the difference between a colony and a tissue.

A colony is a group of cells that live together but could live independently if needed; tissues have cells that live together and carry out functions together, but they cannot be independent or separate from the tissue

(3.2) Give three examples of (a) organs in the human body and (b) organ systems in the human body.

Three Organs: stomach, heart, brain
Three Organ Systems: digestive system, respiratory system, and nervous system

(3.2) Is it acceptable to call unicellular organisms "early organisms"? Why or why not?

It is not because everything was made in the creation week; It also denies Christianity by implying evolution

(3.3) Name the three categories of eukaryotic cell anatomy.

The three categories are boundaries, cytoplasm, nucleus.

(3.3) What is an organelle?

An organelle is a structure inside a cell that performs special functions in the cell. (liken to an organ)

(3.3) How does a prokaryotic cell differ from a eukaryotic cell?

Eukaryotic have a membrane bound nucleus and both membrane and non membrane bound organelles. Prokaryotic lack a membrane around their nuclear area and have only non membrane bound organelles.

(3.3) Describe the structure and functions of the cell membrane.

The cell membrane is the outermost boundary of the cell. It protects it from the environment but regulates access to the environment; It is also composed of a lipid bilayer

(3.3) List the cellular organelles and describe their functions.

see pg. 63

(3.3) Describe the two functions of cilia.

Cilia is used for locomotion (moving the cell) or moving its environment past the cell.

(3.3) Why do you think that the nucleus is often called the "control center" of the cell?

(opinion) because it is in the center and it contains information that the cell requires to function

(3.3) Describe the structure of the plant cell wall. Is it living? Why or why not?

It is an organized construction made of cellulose and carbohydrates. It is not because it is a secretion.

(3.3) What are the two main components of the cytoskeleton? Discuss the structure and function of each.

These two components are microtubules and microfilaments. Microtubules are hollow tubes of proteins. They are important on movement, since they are like tracks inside of the cell. Microfilaments are thinner, solid strands of protein.

(3.3) What is the difference between a leucoplast and a chromoplast?

Leucoplasts are colorless and chromoplasts contain pigment (have color).

(3.3) In what ways are cell membranes, cell walls, and capsules only the outer limits of a cell and not merely the cell's boundaries?

The cell uses the outside environment to survive and is therefore not cut off from the outside completely. (has a semipermeable membrane, receives nutrients from the outside)

(3.4) Why is the homeostasis demonstrated by osmosis in a cell called an equilibrium? Why is this homeostasis described as dynamic?

The organism is constantly interacting with the surrounding enviroment to maintain the delicate balance of conditions for life. When the surrounding conditions are altered, the organism must adjust to maintain the homeostasis of life.

(3.4) Compare and contrast optimal point, optimal range, range of tolerance, and limit of tolerance.

optimal point-point at which an organism functions at its best
optimal range-where the organisms performance is stable
range of tolerance-the range in which the organism will stay alive but will not function properly
limit of tolerance-point at which the

(3.4) Explain the difference between plasmolysis and cytolysis.

Cytolysis is when the cell bursts because it is filling with water and no water is allowed out (inside of the cell has more concentration). Plasmolysis is when water exits the cell but is not allowed in it, causing it to lose its turgidity and shrivel up

(3.4) Compare and contrast isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions.

In isotonic solutions the inside and outside of the cell's concentration gradient is equal. Hypotonic is when the inside of the cell has more concentration. Hypertonic is when the outside of the cell has more concentration.

(3.4) List two methods God designed for some cells to with- stand hypotonic environments, discussing important structures and how they function.

One is the contractile vacuole because it takes in the water coming in and pumps it back into the enviroment. The second is the cell wall and turgor pressure. In this situation, the central vacuole fills up with water and pushes the cell membrane to the c

(3.5) Explain the difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion.

Simple diffusion molecules can just move across the membrane. Facilitated diffusion requires a carrier protein.

(3.5) Explain the similarities and differences between facilitated diffusion and active transport.

Similarities are that they both require carrier proteins. Differences are the energy requirement and the concentration gradient.

(3.5) Explain the differences between the two types of transport proteins.

There are two types: channel protein and carrier protein. The channel protein forms tiny pores (or holes) in the membrane through which specific substances pass. The carrier protein has a specific receptor site that binds to the specific molecule it is de

(3.5) Describe the process of endocytosis.

Endocytosis transports substances in bulk across the cell. When it comes in contact with the substance, the cell membrane envelopes the substance and forms a vacuole.