Lecture 21 stuff

Where does the pituitary gland sit?

Protrudes off the bottom of the hypothalamus

What are the two lobes of the pituitary glands?

Anterior and Posterior

What connects the two lobes of the pituitary to the hypothalamus?

Pituitary stalk

Anterior Pituitary AKA

adenohypophysis

Posterior Pituitary AKA

neurohypophysis

What controls the pituitary gland hormone secretion?

The hypothalamus

Which is made up of neural tissue?

The posterior pituitary

Which is made up of glandular cuboidal epithelial tissue?

The anterior pituitary

What is the connection made up of from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary?

a bundle of axons called the: hypothalamic hypophyseal tract

What is the connection made up of from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary?

vasculature called the: hypophyseal portal system

Which lobe is ADH (vasopressin) released from?

posterior pituitary

Which lobe is oxytocin released from?

posterior pituitary

Which lobe is ACTH released from?

anterior pituitary

which lobe is TSH released from?

anterior pituitary

which lobe is GH released from?

anterior pituitary

which lobe is prolactin released from?

anterior pituitary

which lobe is FSH and LH released from?

anterior pituitary

What stimulates the release of ADH?

low blood volume or BP
high plasma osmolality
pain

What inhibits the release of ADH?

high blood volume or BP
alcohol
low plasma osmolality

What is the supraoptic nucleuss?

axons going down to the posterior pituitary where vesicles hold ADH

What is the main physiologic action of AVP?

to increase water reabsorption by the collecting ducts of the kidneys

What does a decrease in water loss in the urine due?

limits a further rise in osmolality of the blood and conserves blood volume.

What leads to the excessive production of dilute urine?

Low blood AVP levels

What is the paraventricular nucleus?

Axons to the posterior pituitary where oxytocin is synthesized and stored in vesicles

What stimulates the release of oxytocin?

birthing process
ejaculation
nursing or suckling

What is the hypothalamus connected to the anterior pituitary by?

vasculature

When and from where is the adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) secreted?

Secreted from the anterior pituitary in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus.

What is the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) regulated by?

negative feedback of thyroid hormones (the higher the serum levels of these hormones, the lower TSH release)

What does the growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) act on?

target cell, somatrope cell in anterior pituitary which releases growth hormone (GH)

What does prolactin inhibiting hormone (dopamine) (PIH) act on?

target cell, lactotrope cell which releases PIH.

Increased amounts of PIH will inhibit the release of what?

prolactin

What does the pre-optic nucleus release?

gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH)