A&P Chapter 22 Exam 2

Lymphocytes provide an adaptive or specific defense known as the

immune response.

Which cell type is essential to the immune response?


The primary function of the lymphatic system is

defending the body against both external and internal threats

The lymphatic system does all of the following except

transports gases to and away from lymph nodes.

The lymphatic system is composed of all of the following except

the venae cavae.

All of the following are true of the thymus gland except that it

activates B cells.

Most of the lymph returns to the venous circulation by way of the

thoracic duct.

The thoracic duct drains lymph from all of the following regions except the

right breast.

The cells directly responsible for cellular immunity are the ________ cells.

cytotoxic T

The cells responsible for humoral immunity are the ________ cells.


Lymphocytes that destroy foreign cells or virus-infected cells are ________ cells.

cytoxic T


respond to antigens.

are large lymphatic nodules that are located in the walls of the pharynx.


are clusters of lymphatic nodules deep to the epithelial lining of the small intestine.

Peyer's patches

The term lymphadenopathy refers to

a chronic or excessive enlargement of lymph nodes.

Stem cells that will form B cells or NK cells are found only in the

red bone marrow.

Which class of cells is particularly abundant in the red pulp of the spleen?

free and fixed macrophages.

Lymphatic organs differ from lymphatic tissues in what way?

They are surrounded by a fibrous capsule and lymphatic tissues are not.

The white pulp of the spleen is populated by


T Lymphocytes are produced and stored in all of the following except

the brain.

T is to ________ as B is to ________.

thymus-dependent; bone marrow-derived

Stem cells that can form all types of lymphocytes are concentrated in the

red bone marrow.

Lymphatic tissue is found in the greatest quantity in

the adult spleen.

If the thymus shrank and stopped making thymosins, we would expect to see an immediate decrease in the number of

T cells.

An infection and inflammation of the aggregated lymphatic nodules in the pharynx is called


The primary lymphoid organs

bone marrow and thymus

The body's innate defenses include all of the following except


Each of the following is a physical barrier to infection except


An inflammatory response is triggered when

mast cells release histamine and heparin.

The release of endogenous pyrogen (or interleukin-1) by active macrophages would

produce a fever.

Microphages include

both neutrophils and eosinophils.

Various types of macrophages are derived from


Plasma contains ________ special proteins that form the complement system.

more than 30

Histamine increases blood flow and vascular permeability. This would account for all of the following changes that occur during inflammation except

chemotaxis of phagocytes.

Leslie has a severe sore throat and the lymph nodes in her neck are swollen. This would indicate that

the lymph nodes contain an increased number of lymphocytes.

The classic pathway of complement activation begins when the protein C1 binds to

an antibody attached to an antigen.

Immunity that is genetically determined and present at birth is called ________ immunity.


The cells that perform immunological surveillance are the ________ cells.


The phagocytic antigen-presenting cells belong to the ________ group.


Fixed macrophages that are found in the central nervous system are called


Microglia are to the CNS as Kupffer cells are to the


Which of these is NOT one of the nonspecific defenses?


Activated macrophages release endogenous pyrogens that cause __________.


Adaptive defenses depend on the activities of


Immunity that results from antibodies that pass through the placenta from mother to fetus is called ________ immunity.

naturally acquired passive

In passive immunity, the

body receives antibodies produced by other humans or by an animal.

All of the following are true of the primary response of humoral immunity except that

it is delayed by the memory cell stage.

All of the following are true of the secondary response of humoral immunity except that it

weakens quickly because memory B cells only survive for a year or two.

Interleukins do all of the following except

stimulate collagen synthesis.

Which of the following descriptions is NOT a characteristic of adaptive immunity?


Suppressor T cells act to

inhibit T and B cell activities.

Which of the following about MHC proteins is false?

bind complement

T cells and B cells can be activated only by

exposure to a specific antigen at a specific site in a plasma membrane.

Class II MHC proteins are present in the plasma membrane only

in antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes.

CD8 markers are to ________ T cells as CD4 markers are to ________ T cells.

cytoxic; helper

The term ________ refers to antibodies found in body fluids.


Antigen-presenting cells located in the epithelia of the skin are called

dendritic cells.

In order for a lymphocyte to respond to an antigen, the antigen must

bind to specific receptors on the lymphocyte surface.

During a primary immune response, the

IgM titer is initially higher than the IgG titer.

A crime scene investigator found that a biological fluid sample contains a large amount of IgA-type antibody. This fluid is probably


A measure of antibody level in the plasma is

the antibody titer.

Which class of immunoglobulins sensitizes cells to allergens?


Newborns gain their immunity initially from

antibodies passed across the placenta from the mother.

Autoantibodies are

directed against the body's own antigens.

Inappropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens are


Antigens that trigger allergic reactions are called


An example of an immunodeficiency disease is __________.