ATI TEAS | Science - Human Anatomy & Physiology | Test Review Pt. 2

nervous system functions

-directs immediate responses to stimuli
-coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems
-provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions

nervous tissue

neurons and neuroglia

message that are sent across the plasma membranes of neurons are called

action potential

Define action potential

a change in charge across the membrane of a neuron

what causes a change in charge across the membrane of a neuron?

sodium rushing in

Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of

the brain and spinal cord

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consists of

cranial nerves and spinal nerves

two parts of the peripheral nervous system


two parts of the motor/efferent division of the peripheral nervous system

somatic & autonomic

two parts of the autonomic nervous system

sympathetic and parasympathetic

what propagates an action potential

when a neuron is stimulated past a certain threshold

define chemical synapse

a type of synapse in which messages are transmitted from one neuron to another by chemical neurotransmitters


the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

three main types of neurons

sensory neurons
motor neurons

sensory neurons transmit signals from > to

from sensory receptors to the central nervous system

sensory receptors

Specialized cells unique to each sense organ that respond to a particular form of sensory stimulation.
(touch, pain, temperature, hearing, sight, smell, and taste)

motor neurons transmit signals from > to

from the central nervous system to the rest of the body (ex. skeletal muscle, glands)

internuerons transmit signals

between neurons

three basic parts of a neuron

soma (cell body)

dendrites function

receives impulses

axon function

send signal from the neuron to the next cell

Axons are insulated by

myelin sheath


Type of glial cell in the CNS that form the myelin sheath
(can for myelin sheath for many axons)

myelin sheath

covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses

nodes of ranvier

gaps of unsheathed axon between schwann cells

Schwann cells

type of glial cell in the PNS that wraps around the axon to form a myelin sheath
(can form myelin sheath for only one axon)

the spinal cord is encase in


vertebrae function

protect/support spinal cord

three parts of the brain

hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain

Hindbrain includes

medulla, pons, cerebellum

midbrain (mesencephalon)

integrates sensory signals and orchestrates responses to these signals
vision and hearing

forebrain includes

cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus.

cerebral cortex (cerebrum)

-grey, wrinkled surface that is densely packed with neurons
-located in upper forebrain
-connections between neurons grow as we learn and develop
-surface is wrinkled to increase surface area (convolutions)
-higher thinking

the brain is divided into ___ hemispheres


the brain is divided into ___ lobes


Four lobes of the brain

frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal

frontal lobe functions

-short term memory
-working memory
-information processing
-decision making

parietal lobe functions

-sensory input
-spacial positioning of the body

occipital lobe functions

-visual input
-visual processing
-visual output
(nerves from the eyes enter directly into this lobe)

temporal lobe functions

-auditory input
-auditory processing
-auditory output


the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem;
balance and coordination
storing implicit memories (ie learned techniques)
processing sensory input

brain stem consists of (3 parts)

midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

brain stem functions

breathing, heart rate, blood pressure
information passes through the brain stem

Pons location

between midbrain and medulla oblongata

information is sent across the pons from > to

cerebrum to medulla and cerebellum

medulla oblongata

Part of the brainstem that controls vital life-sustaining functions such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion.
connects the brain to the spinal cord

Somatic Nervous System (SNS)

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls voluntary movement of skeletal muscles

autonomic nervous system

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.

efferent nerves

motor nerves

afferent nerves

sensory nerves

three types of muscle

skeletal, cardiac, smooth

what three properties do all muscle tissue types have in common

1) excitability
2) contraction (shorten)
3) elongation (relaxation)

skeletal muscle characteristics

voluntary, striated, multinucleated

smooth muscle characteristics

Not striated
single, central nucleus
More actin than myosin

cardiac muscle characteristics


a muscle contains many

muscle fasicles wrapped in perimysium

a muscle fasicle contains

muscle fibers separated by endomysium

a muscle fiber contains

a bundles of myofibrils

Myofibrils contain

(myosin and actin)

striations are formed by

myosin and actin protein filaments

when an action potential reaches a muscle fiber ______________ _________ are released

calcium ions

myosin heads bind to


atp provides

energy for muscle contraction
(and all cell activities)

Functions of the male reproductive system

produce, maintain, and transfer sperm and semen
produce and secrete male hormones

external structures of the male reproductive system

penis, scrotum, testes

the penis contains

the urethra
erectile tissue

the scrotum is

a sac of skin and smooth muscle that houses the testes

the testes produce

sperm and testosterone

internal structures of the male reproductive system

vas deferens
ejaculatory ducts
seminal vesicles
prostate gland
bulbourethral glands

Epididymis function

stores sperm and transports it from the testes

vas deferens function

transports mature sperm from the epididymis to the urethra

ejaculatory duct

tube through which semen enters the male urethra

seminal vesicles secrete

alkaline fluid
clotting proteins
(fructose and mucus)

prostate gland secretes

milky white fluid with proteins and enzymes

bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands secretes

fluid to neutralize the acidity in the urethra

FSH stimulates what in the male


LH stimulates what in the male

testosterone production

female reproductive system functions

-produce ova
-transfer ova to the fallopian tubes for fertilization
-receive sperm from the male
-provide a protective and nourishing environment for the developing embryo


the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

external parts of the female reproductive system

labia majora
labia minora
bartholin's glands

labia majora and minora

outer and inner skin fold, protects vaginal opening

Bartholin's glands

produce a mucus secretion to lubricate the vagina


organ of sensitive erectile tissue anterior to the opening of the female urethra

internal parts of the female reproductive system

fallopian tubes

ovaries function

produce oocytes
secrete hormones

fallopian tubes function

tubes through which eggs reach the uterus; fertilization usually occurs in the fallopian tubes (ampulla)


A muscular, elastic passageway that extends from the uterus to the outside of the body


Entrance to the uterus


inner lining of the uterus
develops due to estrogen

ovarian cycle phases

follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase

follicular phase (ovarian cycle)

period of follicle growth (days 1-14)
stimulated by FSH

follicular cells secrete (female repro)


estrogen proliferates


Ovulation is induced by a peak in the secretion of


luteal phase

corpus luteum develops from remants of follicle after secondary oocyte and corona radiata are ovulated.
period of corpus luteum activity (days 14-28)

corpus luteum secretes primarily

(also estrogen)
note* estrogen and progesterone inhibit FSH and LH secretion

What hormone maintains the thickness of the endometrium during pregnancy?


What happens if the secondary oocyte is not fertilized?

corpus luteum regresses into corpus albicans, stops secreting progesterone, follicles stop secreting estrogen.
Drop in these two hormones causes menstruation (shedding of endometrium)

uterine cycle phases

menstrual, proliferative, secretory

menstrual phase

estrogen and progesterone drop due to lack of fertilization and endometrium is shed

proliferative phase

endometrium is rebuilt due to estrogen secretion by the follicular cells
(follicles are developing due to FSH involved in ovarian cycle)

secretory phase

the phase of the menstrual cycle during which the endometrium engorges (becomes more vascular) and secretes nutrients to prepare for implantation.

hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) function

to keep corpus luteum active and secreting estrogen and progesterone (to maintain uterine lining) until placenta can take over secretion of these hormones.



prolactin is inhibited by what during pregnancy? why?

inhibited by high levels of estrogen and progesterone
to keep mother from lactating during pregnancy