Exam 2 ReviewChap4

What four tissue types are found in the body?


What is the main function of each of the tissue types?

Epithelial - boundary ex. skin, stomach lining
Connective - support ex. bone, blood
Muscle - movement ex. heart, smooth muscle
Nervous - control ex. nerves, brain

What is a group of similar cells that are together to perform a common function?


What type of tissue is a sheet of cells that covers the body surface or lines a body cavity?


What are some functions of epithelial tissues?

Protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, sensory perception

What type of tissue has a recognizable top and bottom and has cells that are tightly bound together in order to form a boundary?


T / F Epithelial tissue contains blood vessels.

False. Epithelial tissue are avascular.

T / F Epithelial tissue contains nerve fibers.


What is the general shape (number of sides) of epithelial tissue cells?

Six sided

What tissue has a high capability for regeneration and repair even though it does not have access to blood vessels?


All epithelial tissues rest on_____ tissue.

Connective tissue

What is a basement membrane?

The epithelial tissue resting on top of connecting tissue.

What is the difference between stratified and simple epithelial tissues?

Simple epithelial tissues has one layer. Stratified has 2 or more layers.

What do you call an epithelial tissue that has cells that are flat and are stacked many layers thick?

Statified squamous

When naming an epithelial tissue with many layers (which is called?), what layer of cells does one look at to determine the name?

The superficial layer

What are the function(s) of simple squamous / cuboidal / columnar epithelium?

- Simple squamous - can do gas exchange/filtration in the kidneys
- Cuboidal - secretion/absorption
- Columnar - secretion/absorption - microvilli

How many layers of cells are present in pseudostratified columnar epithelium?


T / F All cells of pseudostratified columnar epithelium reach the surface.

False. Only some layers reach the surface.

What are the function(s) of pseudostratified columnar epithelium?

Secretion and absorption - trachea, sperm carrying ducts (nonciliated)

What type of tissue forms the outer portion of the skin?

Stratified squamous

What is the major function of stratified squamous epithelial tissue?


What is the major function of stratified cuboidal / columnar epithelial tissue?

- stratified cuboidal - Secretion
- columnar epithelial - secretion

What type of tissue allows for stretching in the urinary system?

transitional epithelium

What is special about the shape of the cells in transitional epithelial tissue?

Shape of cells can change. Starts round, can be flattened out

What is the definition of a gland?

one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product

What is the difference between multicellular and unicellular glands?

- Unicellular Glands - Single cell secreting glands
- Multicellular - many cells

What type of glands are usually embedded within epithelial sheets?

Unicellular Glands

Where would you find transitional epithelium?

- Found only in urinary system
- Allow stretching within urinary system

What type of gland secretes onto the body?

Exocrine Gland

What are the two parts of an exocrine gland?

- Secretory unit - produces product
- Duct- passageway for release

What are some examples of secretions of the exocrine glands?

Mucous cells and goblet cells

What is a goblet cell?

unicellular exocrine gland secretes mucin (precursor to mucus)

Where does an endocrine gland secrete its products?

Endocrine gland secrete products into the body

What type of gland secretes hormones?

Endocrine gland

What is special about how a merocrine releases its products?

Merocrine releases product as it is made.

What is special about how a holocrine releases its products?

Holocrine accumulate products until they burst

What are the four classes of connective tissue?

Connective tissue proper

What type of embryonic layer does all connective tissue arise from?


What is the most abundant major tissue type in the human body?

Connective tissue proper

Connective tissue has very (high/low) cell density.

Very low cellularity (low cell density)

What makes up most of the space of connective tissues?

Nonliving extracellular matrix

What special cells can be found in connective tissues and where would you find them?

Osteocytes - Bone
Chondrocytes - Cartilage
Erythrocytyes - Blood
Fibrocytes - Connective tissue proper

What is the loosely organized material that sits between cells in connective tissue?

Ground substance

What is ground substance composed of?

Interstitial fluid (mostly H20)
Adhesion proteins

Why do nutrients easily diffuse through most connective tissues?

The ground substance hold large amounts of fluid and functions as a medium through which nutrients can diffuse between the blood capillaries and the cells.

_______connective tissue is mostly composed of ground substance and is usually used as a soft packing tissue.

Loose connective tissues

What is the most abundant connective tissue?

Areolar connective tissue

What are the major functions of areolar tissue?

universal packing tissue

What are the major functions of adipose tissue?

Energy shock absorber, insulation

Fat makes up 90% of what kind of tissue?

Adipose connective tissue

_________Connective tissue is mostly composed of protein fibers and is strong in resisting mechanical stress.

Dense connective tissues

T / F Fibers of irregular dense connective tissue run parallel to each other.

False . Regular = fibers run parallel - meant to take stress in one direction

T / F Fibers of regular dense connective tissue run parallel to each other.

True. Regular = fibers run parallel - meant to take stress in one direction

What type of dense connective tissue is found in the walls of large arteries?


What type of connective tissue is mostly made of tissue fluid and withstands tension and compression?


T /F Cartilage contains blood vessels but no nerve fibers?

False. Avascular and contains no nerve fibers.

What type of cartilage is the most abundant in the body?

Hyaline cartilage.

The ends of long bones and the tip of the nose are examples of cartilage.

Hyaline cartilage.

How is elastic cartilage different when compared to hyaline cartilage?

Elastic cartilage is similar to hyaline but it has many more elastic fibers.

Where can you find examples of elastic cartilage?

- external ear/epiglottis

How is fibrous cartilage different when compared to hyaline cartilage?

- Fibrous cartilage has more collagen fibers and is able to withstand pressure, weight and force

Intervertebral discs are an example of ________cartilage.

Fibro cartilage

T / F Bone is composed of collagen fibers and organic calcium salts.

False. Bone is made of many collagen fibers and inorganic calcium salts (=bone salts)

What type of connective tissue is the site of blood cell synthesis?

Fibro Cartilage

What type of connective tissue is the way that the cardiovascular system transports nutrients ?


________ is united with other connective tissues because it arises from the mesenchyme embryonic layer.


What are the major functions of nervous tissue?

-Transmit nerve impulses
- Respond to stimuli

What type of tissue is responsible for body movements?

Muscle Tissue

What type of muscle tissue is attached to bones and is responsible for external body movements?

Skeletal muscle

What is the main function of cardiac muscle tissue?

Pump blood through body

Where would you find smooth muscle tissue?

Walls of hollow organs

What two tissue types make up the membranes of the body?

Epithelial and connective.

T /F Membranes of the body are organs.

True. Membranes are considered simple organs

Where would you find the cutaneous membrane?

Outer covering of the body (skin)

What body membrane is considered a dry membrane?

Cutaneous membrane

What body membranes are considered wet membranes?

Mucous membrane

What major body membrane lines the body cavities that are open to the environment?

Mucous membrane

What is an example of a mucous membrane?

Respiratory, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tracts

Which group of major body membranes is a double layered membrane and has a lubricating layer between the membranes?

Serous membrane

What major body membrane reduces the friction of organs that move across one another?

Serous membrane

What are the two major functions of the respiratory system?

- supplies blood with Oxygen
- removes carbon dioxide from blood

Besides producing sperm, what is the other major function of the male reproductive system?

Males have testes that produce sperm and male sex hormone

What is the major function of lipids?

Lipids are often used to store energy

What is a base / acid?

Base have a bitter taste, feel slippery, and are proton acceptors - they take up Hydrogen ions in detectable amounts. Has a pH of > 7.0
Acid has a ph of <7.0

What does hydrophilic / hydrophobic mean?

Hydrophilic - water loving
Hydrophobic - water fearing

What type of solutes can pass through the cell membrane?

Non polar solutes can pass through the cell membrane.

What organelle is the information center of the cell?


What three proteins (that we learned) make up the cytoskeleton?

1) Microfilaments
2) Microtubules
3) Intermediate filaments

What organelle is the site where cell energy is produced?


Where would you find gap junctions?

Found in electrically excitable tissues. - nervous tissue, muscle tissue -