Muscle Chart: Lower Limb

Iliacus m.

Flexion of thigh & hip;
Lateral rotation of thigh;
Starts at top corner of pelvis and goes to head of femur

Psoas (major) m.

Flexion of thigh & hip;
Lateral rotation of thigh;
Lateral flexion of trunk;
Unites with iliacus to form the iliopsoas muscle, the most powerful flexor of hip;
Starts at last few vertebrae and goes down to head of femur, medial to iliacus m.

Rectus femoris m.

Extension of leg & knee;
Flexion of thigh & hip;
1 of quadriceps;
Down medial side of femur

Sartorius m.

Flexion of thigh, hip, & knee;
Lateral rotation of thigh(crossing leg);
Abduction of thigh;
Flexion of leg;
Longest muscle in body;
Important in assuming "scissor-legged" or "cross-legged" position;
Starts around hip(distal), and extends down femur(medial

Vastus lateralis m.

Extension of leg & knee;
Quadricep muscle;
Distal side of femur (about from head of femur to patella)

Vastus intermedius m.

Extension of leg & knee;
Quadricep muscle;
Medial/middle of femur;
Medial of vastus lateralis m.

Vastus medialis m.

Extension of leg & knee
Quadricep m.
Medial; past head of femur to top of patella

Pectineus m.

Adduction of thigh;
Flexion of thigh;
Medial rotation of thigh;
Crosses from bottom of pelvis (pubis area) to femur(medial) just below head

Adductor brevis m.

Adduction of thigh;
Medial to Pectineus, distal to Adductor magnus;
Bottom edge of pelvis to femur, below head

Adductor longus m.

Adduction of thigh
Medial to Adductor brevis m., slightly covers Adductor magnus m.;
From pubis to middle of femur(medial)

Adductor magnus m.

Adduction of thigh;
Extension of thigh(hamstring part);
Inner most of the thigh, extending from very bottom point of pelvis to middle of femur

Gracilis m.

Adduction of thigh;
Flexion of leg;
Weak in humans, used for muscle transplants;
Medial to Adductor longus & magnus;
Thin, extending from pubis to femur

Tensor fascia latae m.

Flexion of femur;
Abduction of femur & thigh;
Medial rotation of femur;
Stabilizes knee in full extension (locks);
Top corner of pelvis to just below head (distal side)

Iliotibial tract

Not a musle but important connective tissue band;
Also known as IT band;
Helps maintain knee in full extension, especially while standing

Gluteus maximus m.

Extension of thigh & hip;
Lateral rotation of thigh via iliotbial tract;
Abduction of thigh;
Important for powerful extension of femur (running, climbing stairs, rising from seated position);
Not important in walking;
Overlaps Gluteus medius & minims mm.

Gluteus medius m.

Abduction of hip & thigh(non weight-bearing);
Lowers pelvis on weight-bearing side;
Medial rotation of thigh;
When extending leg out to side, muscle is on side from hip to just below glute line

Gluteus minimus m.

Abduction of thigh(non-weight bearing);
Lowers pelvis on weight-bearing side;
Hip medial rotation;
Acts with gluteus medius;
Some what covered by gluteus medius m.

Semitendinosus m.

Flexion of leg;
Extension of thigh, hip & knee;
One of three hamstring muscles;
Bottom corner of pelvis down femur;
Medial to long head of biceps femoris m., slightly covered by semimembranosus m.

Semimembranosus m.

Flexion of leg;
Extension of thigh, hip & knee;
One of three hamstring mm.;
Medial to short head of biceps femoris m.

Long head of Biceps femoris m.

Flexion of leg, hip & thigh;
Extension of thigh;
Part of hamstring mm.;
Distal to semitendinosus m. & somewhat covers short head of biceps femoris m.

Short head of biceps femoris m.

Flexion of leg & knee;
Distal to Semimembranosus m.;
Part of hamstring mm.

Gastrocnemius m.

Plantar flexion of foot;
Flexion of leg(during walking) & knee;
Muscle on back of calf (covers most of back of tibia & fibula)

Extensor digitorum brevis m.

Extension of toes 2-4(all except big toe);
Ankle to toes 2-4;
Anterior compartment of leg

Extensor digitorum longus m.

Extension of toes 2-5;
Dorsiflexion(foot);
Eversion(foot);
Middle of fibula to toes 2-5;
Anterior compartment of leg

Tibialis anterior m.

Dorsiflexion of foot;
Inversion of foot;
Anterior compartment of leg;
Medial to extensor digitorum m.
Starts at Fibula and crosses over tibia to big toe

Extensor hallucis longus m.

Extension of great toe;
Dorsiflexion(foot);
Inversion(foot);
Anterior compartment of leg;
Medial to extensor digitorum;
Middle of fibula, crosses over to great toe (big toe)

Fibularis longus m.

Eversion of foot;
Plantar flexion of foot;
Tendon of this muscle crosses plantar foot from lateral to medial to attach to metatarsal I

Fibularis brevis m.

Eversion of foot;
Plantar flexion of foot;
Extends down fibula to Metatarsal V

Soleus m.

Plantar flexion of foot(via achilles tendon);
Posterior compartment of leg;
Back of tibia & fibula down to heel of foot, intertwines with Gastrocnemius m.

Flexor digitorum longus m. (deep)

Flexion of toes 2-5;
Plantar flexion of foot;
Inversion of foot;
Medial to flexor digitorum longus m.;
Posterior compartment of leg (tibia)

Tibialis posterior m. (deep)

Planar flexion of foot
Inversion of foot
Extends across back of tibia;
Posterior compartment of leg;
Distal to Flexor digitorum longus m. (deep)

Flexor hallucis longus m. (deep)

Flexion of great toe;
Plantar flexion of foot;
Inversion of foot;
Powerful muscle for "push-off" of foot during walking and running;
Extends down fibula and crosses over to tibia;
Distal to Flexor digitorum longus m. (deep)