A&P II: Chapter 22 - The Respiratory System

The main site of gas exchange is the ________.
A) alveolar duct
B) respiratory bronchiole
C) alveoli
D) alveolar sacs

C) alveoli

The loudness of a person's voice depends on the ________.
A) length of the vocal folds
B) force with which air rushes across the vocal folds
C) thickness of vestibular folds
D) strength of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles

B) force with which air rushes across the vocal folds

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II alveolar cells. The function of type II alveolar cells is to ________.
A) replace mucus in the alveoli
B) protect the lungs from bacterial invasion
C) trap dust and other debr

D) secrete surfactant

Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is ________.
A) equal to the pressure in the atmosphere
B) less than the pressure in the atmosphere
C) greater than the intra-alveolar

D) greater than the pressure in the atmosphere

Which of the following is true regarding normal quiet expiration of air?
A) It depends on the complete lack of surface tension on the alveolar wall.
B) It is a passive process that depends on the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspira

B) It is a passive process that depends on the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration.

Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?
A) pseudostratified ciliated epithelium
B) C-shaped cartilage rings
C) surfactant production
D) surface tension of water

B) C-shaped cartilage rings

Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.
A) difference between atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure
B) pressure within the pleural cavity
C) pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
D) negative pressure in the intrapleural space

C) pressure within the alveoli of the lungs

The relationship between gas pressure and gas volume is described by ________.
A) Dalton's law
B) Charles' law
C) Boyle's law
D) Henry's law

C) Boyle's law

The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases ________.
A) Charles' law
B) Henry's law
C) Boyle's law
D) Dalton's law

D) Dalton's law

Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.
A) humidifying the air before it enters
B) protecting the surface of alveoli from dehydration and other environmental variations
C) warming the air before it enters
D) interfering with t

D) interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid

For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________.
A) between 5 and 6 micrometers thick
B) at least 3 micrometers thick
C) 0.5 to 1 micrometer thick
D) The thickness of the respiratory membrane is not important in the efficiency

C) 0.5 to 1 micrometer thick

With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a(n) ________.
A) decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
B) increase in pH (alkalosis) strengthens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
C) decrease in pH (acidosis) strengthens the hemoglob

A) decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond

The local matching of blood flow with ventilation is ________.
A) ventilation-perfusion coupling
B) the Bohr effect
C) the Haldane effect
D) chloride shifting

A) ventilation-perfusion coupling

In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.
A) only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in blood
B) not present except where it is combined with carrier molecules
C) about equal to the oxygen combined with hemoglobin
D) greater than the ox

A) only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in blood

Which of the following is the leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in North America?
A) lung
B) colorectal
C) esophageal
D) skin

A) lung

Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?
A) compliance and transpulmonary pressures
B) compliance and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid
C) the natural tendenc

C) the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid

Which of the following counteracts the movement of bicarbonate ions from the RBC?
A) the Bohr effect
B) the Haldane effect
C) release of hydrogen ion
D) chloride shifting

D) chloride shifting

Which of the following is NOT a form of lung cancer?
A) squamous cell carcinoma
B) Kaposi's sarcoma
C) small cell carcinoma
D) adenocarcinoma

B) Kaposi's sarcoma

Which of the following refers to the movement of air into and out of the lungs?
A) pulmonary ventilation
B) external respiration
C) internal respiration
D) gas exchange

A) pulmonary ventilation

The major nonelastic source of resistance to air flow in the respiratory passageways is ________.
A) air pressure
B) friction
C) surfactant
D) surface tension

B) friction

Which of the following determines lung compliance?
A) muscles of inspiration
B) alveolar surface tension
C) airway opening
D) flexibility of the thoracic cage

B) alveolar surface tension

Tidal volume is air ________.
A) exchanged during normal breathing
B) remaining in the lungs after forced expiration
C) inhaled after normal inspiration
D) forcibly expelled after normal expiration

A) exchanged during normal breathing

Possible causes of hypoxia include ________.
A) too little oxygen in the atmosphere
B) getting very cold
C) obstruction of the esophagus
D) taking several rapid deep breaths

A) too little oxygen in the atmosphere

The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________.
A) tidal volume
B) expiratory reserve volume
C) inspiratory capacity
D) vital capacity

D) vital capacity

Which of the following is correct regarding acclimatization?
A) At high altitudes, hemoglobin's affinity for O2 is increased because BPG concentrations increase.
B) High-altitude conditions always result in lower-than-normal hemoglobin saturation levels b

B) High-altitude conditions always result in lower-than-normal hemoglobin saturation levels because less O2 is available to be loaded.

Which of the following is NOT a stimulus for breathing?
A) rising blood pressure
B) arterial PO2 below 60 mm Hg
C) acidosis resulting from CO2 retention
D) rising carbon dioxide levels

A) rising blood pressure

The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.
A) inspiratory reserve volume
B) vital capacity
C) reserve air
D) expiratory capacity

A) inspiratory reserve volume

Which statement about CO2 is FALSE?
A) More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.
B) Its concentration in the blood is decreased by hyperventilation.
C) CO2 concentrations are greater in venous blood than arterial blood.
D) Its ac

A) More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.

Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.
A) active transport
B) filtration
C) diffusion
D) osmosis

C) diffusion

Select the correct statement about the pharynx.
A) The pharyngeal tonsil is located in the laryngopharynx.
B) The palatine tonsils are embedded in the lateral walls of the nasopharynx.
C) The laryngopharynx blends posteriorly into the nasopharynx.
D) The

D) The pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube drains into the nasopharynx.

The larynx contains ________.
A) lateral cartilage ridges called false vocal folds
B) the thyroid cartilage
C) an upper pair of avascular mucosal folds called true vocal folds
D) a cricoid cartilage also called the Adam's apple

B) the thyroid cartilage

Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract or relax during forced expiration, for example blowing up a balloon?
A) external intercostals would contract and diaphragm would relax
B) internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract
C) dia

B) internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract

How is the bulk of carbon dioxide transported in blood?
A) as carbonic acid in the plasma
B) as bicarbonate ions in plasma after first entering the red blood cells
C) chemically combined with the heme portion of hemoglobin
D) chemically combined with the

B) as bicarbonate ions in plasma after first entering the red blood cells

Which of the choices below is NOT a role of the pleurae?
A) allow the lungs to easily glide easily over the thorax wall during breathing movements
B) assist in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs
C) help limit the spr

B) assist in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs

Which of the following INCORRECTLY describes mechanisms of CO2 transport?
A) as bicarbonate ions in plasma
B) 7-10% of CO2 is dissolved directly into the plasma
C) just over 20% of CO2 is carried in the form of carbaminohemoglobin
D) attached to the heme

D) attached to the heme part of hemoglobin

Factors that influence the rate and depth of breathing include ________.
A) stretch receptors in the alveoli
B) temperature of alveolar air
C) voluntary cortical control
D) thalamic control

C) voluntary cortical control

The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.
A) respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts
B) alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes
C) respiratory bronchioles and alveolar sacs
D) atria and alveolar sacs

B) alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes

The symptoms of hyperventilation may be averted by breathing into a paper bag because it ________.
A) reduces brain perfusion by constricting cerebral blood vessels
B) helps retain oxygen in the blood
C) lowers blood pH levels
D) helps retain carbon dioxi

D) helps retain carbon dioxide in the blood

Inspiratory capacity is ________.
A) air inspired after a tidal inhalation
B) functional residual capacity
C) the total amount of exchangeable air
D) the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration

D) the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration

Which center is located in the pons?
A) inspiratory center
B) pacemaker neuron center
C) pontine respirator group (PRG)
D) expiratory center

C) pontine respirator group (PRG)

The nose serves all of the following functions EXCEPT ________.
A) cleansing the air
B) warming and humidifying the air
C) as a passageway for air movement
D) as the direct initiator of the cough reflex

D) as the direct initiator of the cough reflex

According to the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve, PO2 in the lungs of 100 mm Hg results in Hb being 98% saturated. At high altitude, there is less O2. At a PO2 in the lungs of 80 mm Hg, Hb would be ________ saturated.
A) 98%
B) less than 50%
C) 100%

D) 95%

Which of the following is an appropriate response to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning?
A) hyperventilation to exhale CO from the body
B) hyperbaric oxygen chamber to increase PO2 and clear CO from the body
C) slow breathing into a paper bag
D) immediate app

B) hyperbaric oxygen chamber to increase PO2 and clear CO from the body

Select the correct statement about the neural mechanisms of respiratory control.
A) The pons is thought to be instrumental in the smooth transition from inspiration to expiration.
B) The dorsal respiratory group neurons depolarize in a rhythmic way to est

A) The pons is thought to be instrumental in the smooth transition from inspiration to expiration.

Which of the choices below is NOT a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?
A) number of red blood cells
B) temperature
C) partial pressure of oxygen
D) partial pressure of carbon dioxide

A) number of red blood cells

Which of the following is responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are ________.
A) the visceral pleurae and the changing volume of the lungs
B) the smooth muscles of the lung
C) the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles alone
D) surface tensi

D) surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity

The erythrocyte (red blood cell) count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ________.
A) basal metabolic rate is higher at high altitudes
B) concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is

B) concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes

Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________.
A) action of the epiglottis
B) ciliated mucous lining in the nose
C) porous structure of turbinate bones
D) abundant blood supply to nasal mucosa

B) ciliated mucous lining in the nose

Which of the following is INCORRECT?
A) The amount of gas flowing in and out of the alveoli is directly proportional to the difference in pressure or pressure gradient between the external atmosphere and the alveoli.
B) Resistance equals pressure gradient

C) Pressure gradient equals gas flow over resistance.

Select the correct statement about the physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation.
A) Surfactant helps increase alveolar surface tension.
B) A lung that is less elastic will require less muscle action to perform adequate ventilation.
C) A decrease

D) As alveolar surface tension increases, additional muscle action will be required.

Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood.
A) During conditions of acidosis, hemoglobin is able to carry oxygen more efficiently.
B) Increased BPG levels in the red blood cells enhance oxygen-carrying capacity.
C) A 50% oxygen saturatio

C) A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.

Which of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation?
A) coryza
B) tuberculosis
C) pneumonia
D) emphysema

D) emphysema

Which of the following does NOT influence hemoglobin saturation?
A) BPG
B) nitric oxide
C) temperature
D) partial pressure of carbon dioxide

B) nitric oxide

For inspiration of air, which of the following happens first?
A) diaphragm descends and rib cage rises
B) intrapulmonary pressure drops
C) air (gases) flows into lungs
D) thoracic cavity volume decreases

A) diaphragm descends and rib cage rises

Spirometry results reveal a vital capacity of two liters which is well below the predicted value of five liters. This suggests which disorder?
A) emphysema
B) asthma
C) restrictive disease
D) obstructive pulmonary disease

C) restrictive disease

The law that applies to the amount of CO2 you could dissolve in a soda is called ________ law.
A) Boyle's
B) Dalton's
C) Henry's
D) Murphy's

C) Henry's

The Bohr effect refers to the unloading of ________ in a RBC due to declining blood pH.
A) chloride ions
B) carbon dioxide
C) BPG
D) oxygen

D) oxygen

Which structure is lined with simple squamous epithelium?
A) oropharynx
B) alveolus
C) trachea
D) nasopharynx

B) alveolus

Using spirometry, a patient discovers their forced expiratory volume (FEV) after the first second is 40%. What does this suggest?
A) exposure to asbestos
B) restrictive disease
C) obstructive pulmonary disease
D) healthy lungs

B) restrictive disease

Which of the following anchor(s) the vocal folds?
A) cuneiform cartilages
B) arytenoid cartilages
C) cricoid cartilage
D) corniculate cartilages

B) arytenoid cartilages

Which of the following is a conducting zone structure?
A) respiratory bronchiole
B) terminal bronchiole
C) alveolar sac
D) alveolar duct

B) terminal bronchiole