Northouse Chapter 8

Transformational Leadership

Part of the "New Leadership" paradigm, which gives more attention to the charismatic and affective elements of leaderships. It is a process that often incorporates charismatic and visionary leadership.

Lowe and Gardner (2001)

In a content analysis of articles published in The Leadership Quarterly, they found that one third of the research was about transformational or charismatic leadership. (p.163)

Antonakis (2012)

Found that the number of papers and citations in the field has grown at an increasing rate, not only in traditional areas like management and social psychology, but in other disciplines such as nursing, education, and industrial engineering. (p.163)

Bass and Riggio (2006) suggestion on transformational leadership

Transformational leadership's popularity might be due to its emphasis on intrinsic motivation and follower development, which fits the needs of today's work groups, who want to be inspired and empowered to succeed in times of uncertainty. (p.163)

i.e. Anderson, 2015; Anderson, Baur, Griffin, & Buckley, 2017 suggestion on transformational leadership

Suggested that the interest in transformational leadership may be exaggerated and that this approach to leading may be less significant as millennials continue to flood into workplace. (p.163)

Political Sociologist James MacGregor Burns titled Leadership (1978)

Attempted to link the roles of leadership and followership. He wrote of leaders as people who tap the motives of followers in order to better reach the goals of leaders and follower. (p.164)
Leadership is quite different from power because it is inseparab

Transactional Leadership

Refers to the bulk of leadership models, which focus on the exchanges that occur between leaders and their followers. (p.164)
ex. Politicians who win votes by promising "no new taxes

Notgrass (2014)

Research suggests that employees do not necessarily perceive transactional leaders as those most capable of creating trusting, mutually beneficial leader-member relationships.
Instead, employees prefer managers to perform transformational leadership behav

In contrast to transactional leadership, transformational leadership is

The process whereby a person engages with other and creates a connection that raises the level of motivation and morality in both the leader and the follower.
This type of leader is attentive to the needs and motives of followers and tries to help followe

Mason, Griffin, and Parker (2014)

Demonstrated that through transformational leadership training, leaders were able to enhance their self-efficacy, positive affect, and ability to consider multiple perspectives.
Their findings suggest that transformational leadership can result in positiv

Pseudotransformational Leadership

Refers to leaders who are self-consumed, exploitive, and power oriented, with warped moral values.
Considered personalized leadership, which focuses on leader's own interests rather than on the interests of others (Bass &Steidmeier, 1999).
ex. Adolf Hitle

Authentic Transformational Leadership

Socialized leadership, which concerned with the collective good. (p.165)

Socialized Transformational Leadership

Transcend their own interests for the sake of others (Howell & Avolio, 1993) (p.165)

Christie, Barling, and Turner (2011)

Set forth components a preliminary model of pseudotransformational leadership that reflected four components of transformational leadership:
- idealized influence
- inspirational motivation
- intellectual stimulation
- individualized consideration

Weber (1947) Charisma defined

A special personality characteristic that gives a person superhuman or exceptional powers and is reserved for a few, is of divine origin, and results in the person being treated as a leader. (p.166)

Avolio & Gibson (1988)

The impact of charismatic leadership behavior is to increase followers' sense of competence and self-efficacy, which in turn improves their performance. (p.167)

Shamir, House, and Arthur (1993)

Postulated that charismatic leadership transforms followers' self-concepts and tries to link the identity of followers to the collective identity of the organization.
Charismatic leaders emphasize the intrinsic rewards of work and de-emphasizing the extri

Idealized Influence

Factor 1
The emotional component of leadership. Describes leaders who act as strong role models for followers; follower identify with these leaders and want very much to emulate them. High standards of moral and ethical conduct and can be counted on to do

Idealized Influence factor is measured on two components:

- Attribution component
- Behavioral component

Inspirational Motivation

Factor 2
Descriptive of leaders who communicate high expectation to followers, inspiring them through motivation to become committed to and a part of the shared vision in the organization.
Team spirit is enhanced by this type of leadership (p.171)

Intellectual Stimulation

Factor 3
Leadership that stimulates followers to be creative and innovative and to challenge their own beliefs and values as well as those of the leader and the organization. (p.171)

Individualized Consideration

Factor 4
Representative of leaders who provide a supportive climate in which they listen carefully to the individual needs of followers. Leaders act as coaches and advisers while trying to assist followers in becoming fully actualized. (p.171)

Contingent Reward

Factor 5
The exchange process between leaders and followers in which effort by followers is exchanged for specific rewards. (p.171)
ex. Constructive transaction: a parent who negotiates with a child

Management by Exception

Factor 6
Leadership that involves corrective criticism, negative feedback, and negative reinforcements. (p.173)

Management by Exception takes two forms

- Active: watches followers closely for mistakes and rule violations and then takes corrective action
- Passive: intervenes only when after standards have not been met or problems have arisen.


Factor 7
Represents the absence of leadership. Leader takes a "hands-off, let-things-ride" (nontransactional) approach.
This leader abdicates responsibility, delays decisions, gives no feedback, and makes little effort to help followers satisfy their need

Bennis and Nanus (2007)

Asked 90 leaders basic questions such as "What are your strengths and weaknesses?" "What past events most influenced your leadership approach?" and "What were the critical points in your career?" From the answers, they identified common strategies used by

Kouzes and Posner (2002,2017)

They interviewed more than 1,300 middle- and senior-level managers in private and public sector organizations and asked them to describe their "personal best" experiences as leaders.
Model consists of five fundamental practices that enable leaders to get