LadderCoOperManual - Building Construction

Unreinforced masonry can usually be identified by a ______ ________, usually every six courses, used to hold the bricks together structurally

king's row

As unreinforced masonry increases in height the thickness must also increase to support the weight of the bricks above. Because of this, usually unreinforced masonry is limited to a

few stories

Hazards of unreinforced masonry are that walls can __________ easily if roof or floor sections fail and push or pull on the wall sections



concrete masonry units or cinder block

block construction has the advantage of having ______ ___________ throughout the structure in the form of steel lintels, grout cells and bond beams, greatly reducing the potential for catastrophic collapse if properly constructed

steel reinforcement

involves building wall, roof, and floor structures from lumber.

Frame construction

Roof structures can be classified in two styles,

conventional and lightweight construction.

Conventional framing consists of 2x4 or 2x6 roof rafters and

ridge beams

Conventional framing
_____ _____help to support the roof structure

King posts

In conventional framing, interior walls running in the direction of the ridge are usually

bearing walls

Lightweight trusses are designed as a series of _________, each component of the lightweight truss is dependent on the other for its support and strength.


Members are held together by gusset plates or gang nails. In lightweight trusses the top cord is under _____________, the bottom cord is under __________

a compression
b tension

Lightweight trusses, unless specifically designed, are designed to be supported by the ends only. The bottom cord is unsupported. At this writing, lightweight trusses were being designed for up to ______' of clear unsupported span.

128 feet

.is a wood I beam used in floor and roof systems.


TJI's are composed of laminate top and bottom cords usually 2x2 with the center webbing of


In tests, an equal size ___ is superior in strength to an equal size solid timber. Unfortunately for firefighters it is true only until the material burns.


Framing multiple stories is accomplished two ways. The older method was called ______ ________. This involved straight runs on sidewalls usually with no fire stops from first to second floor

balloon framing

In older cities, _____________ of floors occurs when floors are impacted or burned and the rim joist is sheered of the sidewalls.


attached to the outside of buildings, generally not fire stopped. Basically a horizontal chimney.

False mansard,

is the older method of spanning large areas without interior columns. Generally, larger dimensional construction plated and bolted together

Bow strung,

Most Bow strung buildings are approaching

50 - 80 years old

As one TJI fails the weight is transferred to other members that cause a ______ ________, failing large areas fairly rapidly

domino effect

Flat roof, commonly seen in residential and commercial occupancies, can be constructed in several techniques. Conventional framed, constructed of larger dimensional solid lumber, generally spanning

small to medium buildings.

, is a lightweight truss where the top and bottom chord are parallel and connected with gusset plates. All features of a lightweight truss apply. Generally supported on the ends and intended to be unsupported in the center

Parallel cord truss

are commonly found in tilt slab buildings and allow large spans with relatively few columns

Panelized roofs

The panelized roof generally is divided with

large glue laminated beams

construction is a method of forming large buildings. The walls of these buildings are constructed of on-site poured, reinforced concrete panels that are lifted into place and welded together with steel plates that are imbedded into the panels.

Tilt slab

construction are usually associated with buildings requiring a great deal of strength and stability. Most of these buildings are large industrial buildings

Post and beam

A hazard to older post and beam construction are that wall panels between the posts are typically

unreinforced masonry