Unreinforced masonry can usually be identified by a ______ ________, usually every six courses, used to hold the bricks together structurally
As unreinforced masonry increases in height the thickness must also increase to support the weight of the bricks above. Because of this, usually unreinforced masonry is limited to a
Hazards of unreinforced masonry are that walls can __________ easily if roof or floor sections fail and push or pull on the wall sections
concrete masonry units or cinder block
block construction has the advantage of having ______ ___________ throughout the structure in the form of steel lintels, grout cells and bond beams, greatly reducing the potential for catastrophic collapse if properly constructed
involves building wall, roof, and floor structures from lumber.
Roof structures can be classified in two styles,
conventional and lightweight construction.
Conventional framing consists of 2x4 or 2x6 roof rafters and
_____ _____help to support the roof structure
In conventional framing, interior walls running in the direction of the ridge are usually
Lightweight trusses are designed as a series of _________, each component of the lightweight truss is dependent on the other for its support and strength.
Members are held together by gusset plates or gang nails. In lightweight trusses the top cord is under _____________, the bottom cord is under __________
Lightweight trusses, unless specifically designed, are designed to be supported by the ends only. The bottom cord is unsupported. At this writing, lightweight trusses were being designed for up to ______' of clear unsupported span.
.is a wood I beam used in floor and roof systems.
TJI's are composed of laminate top and bottom cords usually 2x2 with the center webbing of
In tests, an equal size ___ is superior in strength to an equal size solid timber. Unfortunately for firefighters it is true only until the material burns.
Framing multiple stories is accomplished two ways. The older method was called ______ ________. This involved straight runs on sidewalls usually with no fire stops from first to second floor
In older cities, _____________ of floors occurs when floors are impacted or burned and the rim joist is sheered of the sidewalls.
attached to the outside of buildings, generally not fire stopped. Basically a horizontal chimney.
is the older method of spanning large areas without interior columns. Generally, larger dimensional construction plated and bolted together
Most Bow strung buildings are approaching
50 - 80 years old
As one TJI fails the weight is transferred to other members that cause a ______ ________, failing large areas fairly rapidly
Flat roof, commonly seen in residential and commercial occupancies, can be constructed in several techniques. Conventional framed, constructed of larger dimensional solid lumber, generally spanning
small to medium buildings.
, is a lightweight truss where the top and bottom chord are parallel and connected with gusset plates. All features of a lightweight truss apply. Generally supported on the ends and intended to be unsupported in the center
Parallel cord truss
are commonly found in tilt slab buildings and allow large spans with relatively few columns
The panelized roof generally is divided with
large glue laminated beams
construction is a method of forming large buildings. The walls of these buildings are constructed of on-site poured, reinforced concrete panels that are lifted into place and welded together with steel plates that are imbedded into the panels.
construction are usually associated with buildings requiring a great deal of strength and stability. Most of these buildings are large industrial buildings
Post and beam
A hazard to older post and beam construction are that wall panels between the posts are typically