List three lifestyle changes that will help when dealing with stress?

Healthy diet
Relaxtion technique
Moving to a less busy response area

The U.S Government office responsible for development of EMS curricula is

NHTSA- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration which is part of the DOT

Three types of muscles

Skeletal muscle(Voluntary)
Smooth muscle(involuntary)

What is the difference between on-line and off-line medical direction?

On-line medical direction required actual contact with physician(phone,radio).Off-line does not(e.g written protocols)

Define:Scope of practice

The collective set of regulations, rules, and protocols that define yo practice as an EMT.

List the 5 stages of dying



The process of removing dangerous substances or chemicals.

An E-911 center has what advantage over a 911 center?

The E-911 center can tell what number/location the caller is calling from.

List the 4 components required to prove negligence

1. There was a duty to act
2. There was a breach of that duty to act(inaction or improper action)
3. That harm was done to he patient(physical, financial or emotional)
4. That the action or the in action of the EMT cause the harm(proximate cause)

Which of the hepatitis viruses are spread through oral-fecal route?

Hepatitis A

The primary response to stress involves which nervous system?

Sympathetic nervous system prepares the body to respond to stress by increasing heart rate and breathing, and providing more blood flow to supply oxygen to muscles involved in the fight/flight response.

You are treating a responsive patient with a difficult difficulty breathing. The patient is on a second floor with no elevator. You should move her downstairs with a

Stair chair

vertebrae in the lower back


What is a nasal atomizer? How does it work?

Intranasal medications are atomizer ( turn into a fine mist). This is done with a device called an atomizer which fits on the end syringe. After assuring the 5 rights of medication administration device is placed into an nostril.
The plunger of the syring

What is the difference between a crime and the tort?

A crime is a criminal act and is punishable by jail. A tort is a civil action and usually remedied by monetary fine.

Define pathogen

An organism which causes infection.

You have been caring for patients at the multiple casualty incident. What type of stress response are you likely to have immediately after the incident?

Acute stress reaction

In what abdominal quadrant would you find the appendix?

Lower right quadrant

Define: red ipsa loquitor

Latin for "the thing speaks for itself ". The concept where even an incident where a patient was harm was accidental or an unintentional, the fact that the incident happened is enough to imply negligence.

Consent that is used when a patient is unresponsive or incapacitated and unable to grant consent.

implied consent

What is the difference between an emergency move and an urgent move?

The emergency move is done in relation to something in the environment (fire, to reach another patient), while in urgent move is done because of a need that patient (e.g. for airway care or to protect from the elements).

OSHA stands for

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

List several situations where you may be required to notify an outside agency or file a special report.

Child abuse
Elder abuse
Sexual assault
Domestic abuse
Gunshot wounds or other violence

How many sets of ribs are there?

12 pair ribs. Two of these are "floating ribs".They are called flooring because they do not attach anteriorly. The other 10 pair ribs are attached- either directly or through cartilage- to the sternum.

You are treating a patient who is unresponsive at the end of a tight, second-floor hallway. What device would you use to move the patient downstairs?

Flexible or Reeves stretcher

What are the four levels of EMS education in the United States?

Emergency medical responder
Emergency medical technician
Advanced EMT

The knee is (distal or proximal) to the hip


There are five levels of development between birth and adulthood. Name the levels and the age ranges for each.

Infant-birth to 1 year(includes neonate which is north- 1 month)
Toddler -1 to 3 years
Preschool -3 to 6 years
School age -6 to 12 years
Adolescente-12 to 18 years


The large bone in the anterior portion of the lower leg. Commonly called (shin bone).

What does HIPAA stand for?

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

Define quality improvement

The system by which an EMS organization performs a self- review looking for ways to improve

What is acidosis?

It's when the pH of the blood is less than 7.35
It's caused by an elevated level of hydrogen ions in the blood

Define Bariatric

A significantly obese patient

What is the difference between cover and concealment?

Use when facing danger, both of your body. Cover is preferred because it also offers ballistic protection.

Define protocols

Written orders issued by physician which lists (skills, treatments) than may be taken in a specific circumstance.

Define standard precautions

The process by which you decide what personal protective equipment down based on patient presentation and the rest of exposure.